《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书

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2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书
White Paper: Progress in China's Human Rights in 2013 
  国务院新闻办公室26日发表了《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书。全文如下: 
  The Information Office of the State Council issued a white paper on Progress in China's Human Rights in 2013 Monday. Following is the full text: 
  
2013年中国人权事业的进展
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2014年5月 Progress in China's Human Rights in 2013 
Information Office of the State Council
The People's Republic of China
May 2014, Beijing 
目 录 Contents 
前 言 Foreword 
一、发展权利 I. Right to Development 
二、社会保障权利 II. Right to Social Security 
三、民主权利 III. Democratic Rights 
四、言论自由权利 IV. Rights to Freedom of Speech 
五、人身权利 V. Rights of the Person 
六、少数民族权利 VI. Rights of Ethnic Minorities 
七、残疾人权利 VII. Rights of Persons with Disabilities 
八、环境权利 VIII. Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment 
九、人权领域的对外交流与合作 IX. Foreign Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights 
 
  前 言 Foreword
 
  2013年,在实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的征程上,中国人权事业又取得了新进展。 In 2013 China made progress in its human rights undertaking while advancing on the course of the Chinese Dream, a great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
  这一年里,中国共产党和中国政府坚持从本国国情和实际出发,以促进社会公平正义、增进人民福祉为出发点和落脚点,全面深化改革,推动经济社会文化各项事业的发展,保证人民平等参与、平等发展权利,让发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。中国的发展进步,使每个中国人都得到发展自我和服务社会的机会,都享有人生出彩和梦想成真的机会。中国的人权事业正在向更好更高的目标迈进。 In that year, the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government, based on China's prevailing conditions and reality, and aiming at promoting social fairness, justice and the people's well-being, comprehensively deepened the reform, promoted various undertakings in the economic, social and cultural fields, and safeguarded the people's rights to equal participation and development, so that the fruits of development would benefit the people in a better and more equal way. China's development provides all Chinese people with the opportunities to develop themselves, serve society, make successes in their life and realize their dreams. China is now reaching for a higher goal in its human rights undertaking.
 
  2013年,中国人权事业在以下若干方面取得的成就备受瞩目: In 2013 China's human rights undertaking made remarkable achievements in the following aspects:
 
  ——人民生活水平稳步提高,城乡居民衣食住行条件不断改善,基本公共服务均等化进一步推进,人民的生存权和发展权得到更好的保障。 - The people's living standards have risen steadily, as China continuously improves the urban and rural residents' clothing, food, accommodation, and transportation conditions, further equalizes basic public services, and better protects the people's rights to subsistence and development.
 
  ——世界上规模最大的社会保障体系初步形成,城乡居民特别是困难群体的基本生活更有保障,生活更有尊严。 - The world's largest social security system has taken shape, and both urban and rural residents, especially people in straitened circumstances, can live in dignity, with their basic living conditions better ensured.
 
  ——民主法制建设进一步加强,首次实现城乡按相同人口比例选举全国人大代表。加强对权力的约束,严惩贪污腐败,建设廉洁政治迈出重要步伐。 - China's democracy and legal system have been further strengthened. China's rural and urban areas for the first time realized the same ratio of deputies to the represented population in the election to the National People's Congress (NPC) deputies in 2013. China also took an important step forward in building a clean government, as it has restricted the use of power and cracked down on corruption.
 
  ——协商民主制度化持续推进,基层直接民主健康发展,公民依法有序实现民主权利形式更加多样,国家政治生活的民主化水平进一步提高。 - China has continuously constitutionalized consultative democracy, and promoted the sound development of grassroots democracy. Chinese citizens now have diversified ways to realize their democratic rights according to law and in an orderly manner, and the country's political life has become more democratic.
 
  ——国家治理体系和治理能力现代化建设取得新进展,权力运行更加规范,政务信息更加公开,公众言论自由的权利得到保障。 - China has further upgraded its governance system and capacity. The exercise of power is more procedure-based, government work is more transparent, and public freedom of speech is better ensured.
 
  ——废止劳动教养制度,多措并举防范冤假错案,遏制刑讯逼供,保障食品药品安全,遏制重特大安全事故,公民人身自由与生命健康权利更有保障。 - China has abolished the system of reeducation through labor, and adopted multiple measures to curb the practice of extorting confessions by torture and prevent unjust, false and erroneous litigation. In order to better protect the citizens' rights to life, health and personal freedom, China has also made great efforts to guarantee food and pharmaceuticals safety, and to prevent major accidents.
 
  ——国家对少数民族继续实施倾斜性政策,少数民族依法享有和行使各项权利。西藏、新疆等民族地区经济社会各项事业发展步伐加快,人权保障事业全方位推进。 - China has continued to provide preferential policies for ethnic minorities, and made sure they can enjoy and exercise their rights according to law. China has also accelerated the comprehensive development of various social, economic and human rights protection undertakings in regions inhabited by ethnic minorities, including the Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet autonomous regions.
 
  ——残疾人事业发展进入新阶段,残疾人基本公共服务体系更加完善,各项权利得到有效保障,残疾人平等参与社会生活的条件进一步改善。 - China has entered a new stage in efforts to help the disabled. With their various rights well protected and an improved public service system in place, disabled people are in a better position to participate in social life as equals.
 
  ——加快生态文明制度建设,加大资金投入和生态环境保护力度,依法惩治环境侵权犯罪,努力建设美丽中国。 - China has speeded up its ecological progress, increased financial input, strengthened environmental protection, punished environmental crimes, and is striving to build a beautiful China.
 
  人权事业永无止境。在人权问题上没有最好,只有更好。中国人权事业发展取得的进步有目共睹,任何一个客观理性的观察者,都会得出公正的结论。同时,中国是一个发展中大国,发展中不平衡、不协调、不可持续的问题还比较突出。在中国,实现更高水平的人权保障,仍需做出更大的努力。实践证明,只有坚持走中国特色社会主义道路,中国人权事业才会有更好的发展,全体中国人民才能实现更加全面的发展。 The pursuit of the improvement of human rights never ends, for there is always room for better human rights conditions. China's progress in its human rights undertaking is there for everybody to see, and every unbiased and reasonable observer can draw a fair conclusion. At the same time, China is still a large developing country, with conspicuous problems of unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to bring higher standards to human rights protection. It has been proved that only by adhering to the socialist path with Chinese characteristics can China's human rights undertaking achieve better development, and the Chinese people realize more comprehensive development.
 
 
  一、发展权利 I. Right to Development
 
  2013年,中国经济运行稳中向好,发展成果更多地惠及全体人民,广大群众的物质文化需要得到更好的满足,中国人民的发展权利得到更加充分的保障。 China's economy was stable and improved in 2013, better benefiting the Chinese people. The material and cultural needs of the people have been better satisfied, and the Chinese people's right to development has been better guaranteed.
 
  人民生活水平持续提高。2013年,中国国内生产总值保持了7.7%的较快增长。全年农村居民人均纯收入8,896元,扣除价格因素,实际增长9.3%;城镇居民人均可支配收入26,955元,扣除价格因素,实际增长7.0%;居民消费价格涨幅保持在2.6%的低水平。全国粮食产量达到60,193.5万吨;民用汽车保有量达到13,741万辆;固定电话用户26,699万户,移动电话用户新增11,696万户,达到122,911万户。国内游客32.6亿人次,比上年增长10.3%;国内居民出境9,819万人次,增长18.0%,其中因私出境9,197万人次,增长19.3%。 The people's living standards are steadily on the rise. In 2013 China maintained a GDP growth rate of 7.7 percent, which was relatively fast. The annual per capita net income for rural residents reached 8,896 yuan, up 9.3 percent in real terms; the annual per capita disposable income for urban residents was 26,955 yuan, an increase of 7 percent in real terms; and the rise in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) remained at the low level of 2.6 percent. China's annual grain output in 2013 reached 601.935 million tons; the number of civil vehicle holding reached 137.41 million; the number of fixed phone lines was 266.99 million, and the number of mobile phone users increased by 116.96 million to 1,229.11 million. The number of domestic tours totaled 3.26 billion, and the number of trips abroad made by Chinese citizens reached 98.19 million, up 10.3 percent and 18 percent, respectively, over the previous year. Among them, the number of trips abroad for private purposes reached 91.97 million, an increase of 19.3 percent.
 
  多渠道扩大就业。在就业压力大的情况下,中国坚持实施就业优先战略,将稳增长、保就业作为经济运行合理区间的下限,在发展的基础上创造更多和更高质量的就业机会。注重发展吸纳就业能力强的劳动密集型产业、中小企业、民营企业、服务业。2013年城镇新增就业1,310万人,比2012年多增44万人。城镇登记失业率保持在4.1%的较低水平。加强技能培训,全国开展政府补贴性职业培训2,049万人次,其中,就业技能培训1227.5万人次,创业培训208.2万人次,岗位技能提升培训548.7万人次,其他培训64.6万人次。城镇登记失业人员培训398万人。帮助农村劳动力稳定转移就业,全年共组织农民工专场招聘2万多场,培训农民工938.4万人次。更加关注以高校毕业生为重点的青年就业,通过加强就业指导服务,开展校园招聘活动,实施“离校未就业高校毕业生就业促进计划”等措施,促进高校毕业生多渠道、多形式就业和创业。 Employment is expanding through various channels. Despite great employment pressure, China adheres to the employment priority strategy, taking stable growth and ensuring employment as the threshold of a proper economic range, and creating more and better-quality jobs on the basis of development. China attaches great importance to the development of labor-intensive industries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), private enterprises and service industries that can create more jobs. In 2013 some 13.1 million urban jobs were created, an increase of 440,000 over 2012, and the registered urban unemployment rate stayed at 4.1 percent, which was relatively low. The government also provided skills training. As many as 20.49 million people participated in vocational training with government subsidies in 2013, among whom 12.275 million participated in employment skills training, 2.082 million attended entrepreneurship training, 5.487 million took part in job skills upgrading training and 646,000 received other types of training. The number of laid-off workers receiving training reached 3.98 million. China endeavors to facilitate the transfer to non-agricultural jobs of rural people, organized more than 20,000 special job fairs for migrant workers in 2013, and trained 9.384 million farmers. The government attaches ever-more importance to the employment of young people, especially college graduates. Through employment guidance services, campus recruitment activities, the "Employment Promotion Plan for Unemployed College Graduates" and other measures, China encourages college graduates to find jobs and start businesses in various forms and through various channels.
 
  劳动者权利得到切实保障。2013年,全国有27个省(区、市)提高了最低工资标准,平均提高幅度为17%。外出农民工月平均收入2,609元,比2012年增加319元。全国基层工会组织和职工维权机构继续保持较快发展。截至2013年,各地乡镇街道劳动争议调解组织组建率达60%,同比增加10个百分点;劳动人事争议仲裁委员会组建率达91.6%;全国劳动人事争议仲裁院建院率为72.7%,同比增加约20个百分点。截至2013年,全国共有基层工会组织277万个,比2012年增长4%;全国签订有效集体合同129.8万份,比2012年增长6%,覆盖364万家企业1.6亿职工,分别比2012年增长18%和9%。加大帮扶困难职工工作力度,773.9万人次困难职工得到帮助。 The basic rights of workers are guaranteed. In 2013 a total of 27 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government) raised their minimum wage standards, averaging a 17 percent annual hike. The average monthly income of rural workers employed away from their homes was 2,609 yuan, an increase of 319 yuan over 2012. Community-level trade unions and organizations for safeguarding workers' rights continue to maintain a relatively rapid pace of development. By the end of 2013 the formation rate of labor dispute mediation organizations in townships and subdistricts had reached 60 percent, an increase of 10 percent year on year; the formation rate of labor dispute arbitration committees had reached 91.6 percent; and the rate of labor dispute arbitration courts nationwide was 72.7 percent, up 20 percent year on year. The number of community-level trade unions increased to 2.77 million, up 4 percent over 2012; a total of 1.298 million effective collective contracts were signed throughout the country, involving 3.64 million enterprises and 160 million employees, up 6 percent, 18 percent and 9 percent over 2012, respectively. Assistance to impoverished workers was strengthened, benefiting 7.739 million people in 2013.
 
  保障性安居工程建设不断推进。2013年,中央财政下达2,003亿元补助资金,支持各地加快保障性住房建设和棚户区改造,完善配套基础设施建设。全年新开工建设保障性住房和棚户区改造住房660万套,基本建成540万套。截至2013年,全国累计解决了3,600多万户城镇家庭的住房困难。地级以上城市均制定了外来务工人员申请住房保障的条件、程序和轮候规则,住房保障制度由仅覆盖城镇户籍家庭扩展到覆盖全部常住人口。继续推进农村危房改造,全年改造农村危房266万户。 The government-subsidized housing projects continue to make progress. In 2013 the central government appropriated 200.3 billion yuan to help facilitate the building of government-subsidized housing and the rebuilding of dilapidated areas in all regions, and the improvement of supporting infrastructure. In the same year, construction of 6.6 million government-subsidized housing units and housing units in dilapidated areas started, and 5.4 million were basically finished. By the end of the year China had provided housing for another 36 million urban families. Cities at prefectural level and above had all worked out the conditions, procedures and waiting rules for government-subsidized housing applications by migrant workers, and the government-subsidized housing system had expanded to cover not only households with permanent urban residency but all the resident population in urban areas. China continued to promote the renovation of rural housing, renovating 2.66 million dilapidated rural houses in 2013.
 
  农村扶贫开发扎实推进。2013年,国务院发布了《关于创新机制扎实推进农村扶贫开发工作的意见》。中央财政投入专项扶贫资金394亿元,比上年增加了62亿元。2013年全国农村共有1,650万人脱贫。国家扶贫开发工作重点县农村居民人均纯收入5,389元,比上年增加787元,扣除价格因素,实际增长13.8%,增幅继续高于全国平均水平。 Poverty reduction in rural areas is making steady headway. In 2013 the State Council issued Opinions on Promoting Rural Poverty Alleviation though Innovation Mechanisms. The central government appropriated 39.4 billion yuan on poverty reduction, an increase of 6.2 billion yuan over the previous year. In 2013 some 16.5 million rural residents got rid of poverty. The per capita net income for rural residents in the counties which are key targets of the government's poverty-reduction work reached 5,389 yuan, an increase of 787 yuan over 2012, or up 13.8 percent in real terms, a growth rate higher than that of the average level in China.
 
  基层贫困地区教育保障力度加大。2013年全国公共财政教育支出21,877亿元,增长3%,对农村贫困地区予以重点倾斜。2013年,中央财政安排营养膳食补助资金190亿元(含地方试点奖补资金22.18亿元),食堂建设专项资金近100亿元。截至2013年,共有3,245万农村义务教育学生享受营养补助政策,其中:全国22个省份的699个集中连片特困县(包括新疆兵团19个团场)开展了国家试点,覆盖学校9.59万所,受益学生3,200万人;19个省份的529个县开展了地方试点,覆盖学校3.98万所,受益学生1,002万人。中央下达农村义务教育薄弱学校改造计划资金100亿元,重点支持中西部农村地区、民族地区、贫困地区改善薄弱学校办学条件。中央财政安排资金165亿元,支持和引导地方扩大学前教育资源,鼓励地方建立学前教育资助制度,帮助家庭经济困难儿童、孤儿和残疾儿童接受普惠性学前教育;安排普通高中国家助学金46.47亿元,资助家庭经济困难学生近500万人;所有农村学生、城市涉农专业和家庭经济困难学生均享受中职免学费政策,一、二年级在校涉农专业学生和非涉农专业家庭经济困难学生享受国家助学金。30个省(区、市)向社会公布了进城务工人员随迁子女在当地参加高考的实施方案,12个省市开始解决随迁子女在当地参加高考问题。 Education in poverty-stricken areas is better ensured, with bigger efforts being made in this regard. The expenditure from public finance on education in 2013 was 2187.7 billion yuan, up 3 percent over the previous year and mainly focusing on poverty-stricken rural areas. In the same year, the central financial body allocated 19 billion yuan of nutrition subsidies (including 2.218 billion yuan of government awards and subsidies for local pilot projects) and a special fund of nearly 10 billion yuan for building student dining halls. By the end of 2013 some 32.45 million rural students receiving compulsory education were benefiting from the nutrition subsidy policy. A total of 699 counties with contiguous poor areas (including 19 regiment-level entities of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) in 22 provincial-level administrative areas carried out pilot projects, covering 95,900 schools and benefiting 32 million students; 529 counties in 19 provincial-level administrative areas launched pilot projects, covering 39,800 schools and benefiting 10.02 million students. The central government appropriated 10 billion yuan to upgrade rural schools with poor compulsory education conditions, with the focus on supporting the central and western rural areas, regions inhabited by ethnic minorities and poverty-stricken areas in improving their compulsory education conditions. The government allocated 16.5 billion yuan of funds from the central budget to support and lead the expansion of preschool educational resources in various regions, and to encourage the local governments to establish the preschool education financial assistance system so as to help impoverished children, orphans and disabled children receive preschool education; the government also provided 4.647 billion yuan of national grants to regular senior high schools, benefiting nearly 5 million students from poverty-stricken households; secondary vocational education was made free for all rural students, urban students whose majors are related to agriculture, and urban impoverished students, and the first- and second-grade students whose majors are related to agriculture or who are from impoverished households enjoy national grants. Thirty provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government) have released policies allowing the children of rural migrant workers who live in cities to take the local college entrance examinations, and 12 provinces and municipalities have started solving the problem.
 
  公民享受更加优质、均等的文化服务。继续实施《全国地市级公共文化设施建设规划》,开展创建国家公共服务体系示范区(项目)工作,中央和各地投入创建的财政资金超过180亿元。截至2013年,文化信息资源共享工程已建成1个国家中心,33个省级分中心,2,843个市县支中心,29,555个乡镇(街道)基层服务点,60.2万个行政村(社区)基层服务点,部分省(区、市)村级覆盖范围已延伸到自然村;已建设公共电子阅览室42,654个,其中乡镇27,706个,街道2,282个,社区12,666个。2013年,全国公共图书馆共发放借书证2,877万个,比上年增加393万个;总流通人次49,232万人次,比上年增加5795万人次。2013年,全国群众文化机构共组织开展各类活动128.84万场次,服务人次43,431万人次。国家通过实施广播电视村村通户户通、全国文化信息资源共享、农家书屋、农村电影公益放映、乡镇综合文化站建设等一系列重大文化惠民工程,将公共文化资源直接输送到基层。2013年,全国公共财政文化体育与传媒支出2519.56亿元,比上年增长11.1%。2013年,中央财政用于公共文化服务体系建设的资金达170亿元,比上年增加16亿元,增长10.55%。在资金支出时切实贯彻落实增量经费主要用于基层、用于农村的规定,并向老少边穷地区倾斜。基本公共文化服务均等化取得进展。 Chinese citizens enjoy better and equal cultural services. China has continued to implement the National Construction Plan of Prefectural (City) Level Public Cultural Facilities, and has started the project of building demonstration sites of the national public service system, with 18 billion yuan of funds from the central and local public finance. By the end of 2013, with the cultural information resource-sharing program, China had built one service center at the national level, 33 sub-centers at the provincial level, 2,843 branches at the county level, 29,555 service stations at the township (subdistrict) level, and 602,000 service outlets at the incorporated village (community) level, and the service outlet coverage in some provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government) has extended to unincorporated villages; China has built 42,654 public electronic reading rooms, among which 27,706 are in townships, 2,282 are in subdistricts and 12,666 are in communities. In 2013 public libraries in China handed out 28.77 million library cards, 3.93 million more than in the previous year; the number of visits to libraries reached 492.32 million, 57.95 million more than in the previous year. In the same year, cultural institutes across the country organized 1.2884 million activities of various kinds to provide services to 434.31 million people. China has delivered public cultural resources directly to communities by implementing a series of major cultural projects benefiting the people, including providing radio and television services to every household of rural areas, launching the national cultural information resource-sharing program, building libraries for farmers, projecting free films in rural areas, and setting up township cultural stations. In 2013 the country' s total funds for culture, sports and media services provided by the public finances reached 251.956 billion yuan, an increase of 11.1 percent as compared with the previous year. The central government spent 17 billion yuan on the building of the public cultural service system, an increase of 1.6 billion yuan, or 10.55 percent over the previous year. The government uses incremental funds mainly at the community level and in rural areas, and provides preferential policies to former revolutionary base areas, areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, border areas and impoverished regions. Public cultural services have also been made more equitable.
 
 
  二、社会保障权利 II. Right to Social Security
 
  随着全面建成小康社会的加快推进,近年来中国的社会保障水平不断提高。2013年,中国社会保障事业快速发展,保障内容持续增加,保障范围不断扩大,在经济发展水平还不是很高的情况下,初步建立了世界上规模最大的符合现阶段中国社会实际的社会保障体系。 China's social security has been continuously improving in recent years, as we speed up the process of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China's social security developed rapidly in 2013, as it expanded constantly both in coverage and scope. Although not very developed, China has put in place a rudimentary social security system, which is the world's largest and suitable to China' s current social conditions.
 
  2012年,实现全国新型农村社会养老保险和城镇居民社会养老保险制度全覆盖。截至2013年,全国城乡居民参保人数达到49,750万人,比2012年增加1,381万人;全国城镇职工基本养老保险参保人数为32,218万人,比2012年增加1,791万人。2013年,企业退休人员月人均基本养老金水平继续调整,调整水平按2012年企业退休人员月人均基本养老金的10%左右确定,达到近1900元,并对具有高级职称的企业退休科技人员、基本养老金相对偏低的人员等进行适当倾斜。2014年2月,国务院发布《关于建立统一的城乡居民基本养老保险制度的意见》,将新型农村社会养老保险和城镇居民社会养老保险两项制度合并实施,在全国范围内建立统一的城乡居民基本养老保险制度。 In 2012 full coverage was achieved by the new social endowment insurance system for rural residents and social endowment insurance for non-working urban residents. By the end of 2013 a total of 497.5 million rural and non-working urban residents had participated in social endowment insurance, an increase of 13.81 million compared with 2012. A total of 322.18 million people had participated in the basic endowment insurance for urban workers by the end of 2013, an increase of 17.91 million compared with 2012. In 2013 the monthly per capita basic pension for enterprise retirees, which had been continuously raised for years, reached almost 1,900 yuan, 10 percent of the average monthly pension of 2012. The new adjustment also provided preferential treatment for retired senior enterprise technicians, and retirees whose pensions were relatively low. In February 2014 the State Council issued Opinions on Establishing a Unified Basic Pension Insurance System for Rural and Non-working Urban Residents, which integrates the new social endowment insurance system for rural residents with the social endowment insurance system for non-working urban residents, and build a unified basic pension insurance system for both rural and non-working urban residents nationwide.
 
  建立和完善医疗保险制度,保障城乡居民医疗权利。目前,中国已基本建立全民医疗保险体系,且保障水平在不断提升。参加城镇职工医疗保险、城镇居民医疗保险和新型农村合作医疗的人数超过13亿,参保率达到90%以上。截至2013年,参加城镇居民基本医疗保险人数达到 29,906万人。政府对城镇居民医疗保险的补助标准逐年提高,从2007年的人均40元提高到2013年的280元,政策范围内住院费用报销比例提高到70%左右,基层最高支付限额达到当地居民年人均可支配收入的6倍左右。新型农村合作医疗制度自建立以来,迅速覆盖了全体农民。2007年参加新农合的人数为7.3亿,参合率为85.7%;截至2013年,人数达到8.02亿,参合率上升至99%。政府对新农合的财政补助逐年增加,人均筹资水平不断提高。2013年,新农合的人均筹资水平提高到340元左右,其中各级财政补助标准提高到280元,政策范围内住院费用报销比例保持在75%左右,最高支付限额和门诊医药费用报销比例进一步提高。2013年,参合农民共计受益13.2亿人次,同比增长14.9%;新农合大病保障受益人次达137万,实际报销比例达到70%左右。 China has established and improved its medical insurance system to protect both rural and urban residents' right to medical treatment. So far, China has established a basic national medical insurance system, and kept raising its standard. More than 1.3 billion people, or over 90 percent of the total population have participated in medical insurance for non-working urban workers, basic medical insurance for urban residents or the new rural cooperative medical care system. By the end of 2013 some 299.06 million people had participated in the basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents. Government subsidies for basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents have been rising year by year-from 40 yuan per person in 2007 to 280 yuan in 2013. The reimbursement rate for hospitalization expenses covered by relevant policies has been raised to around 70 percent, and the maximum payment has been raised to six times local residents' per capita disposable income. The new rural cooperative medical care system has expanded rapidly to cover the entire rural population. By the end of 2013 a total of 802 million people had participated in the new rural cooperative medical care system, compared with 730 million in 2007, with its coverage rate rising from 85.7 percent to 99 percent. Government subsidies for the new rural cooperative medical care system and per capita funding have grown year by year. In 2013 per capita financing for the new rural cooperative medical care increased to about 340 yuan, of which 280 yuan was subsidies from government at various levels; the reimbursement rate for hospitalization expenses covered by relevant policies has stayed at 75 percent, and the maximum payment and the reimbursement rate for outpatient expenses have been further increased. In the same year the new rural cooperative medical care system benefited a total of 1.32 billion people, up 14.9 percent year on year, and 1.37 million patients benefited from serious illness insurance under the new rural cooperative medical care system, with a reimbursement rate of 70 percent.
 
  城乡居民大病保险试点进展顺利,重特大疾病保障机制开始建立,减轻了城乡居民大病医疗费用负担。2012年,国家发改委等6部门联合印发《关于开展城乡居民大病保险工作的指导意见》,全国已有28个省份启动实施了大病保险试点工作,8个省份全面推开。2013年,肺癌、胃癌等20种重大疾病全部纳入大病保障范畴。儿童苯丙酮尿症和尿道下裂被纳入新农合大病保障,新农合保障的重大疾病已达22种。 The urban and rural residents' medical burden resulting from serious illnesses has been greatly mitigated, because of the establishment of the medical care system for major and very serious illnesses and the smooth progress of the pilot projects for serious illness insurance for urban and rural residents. In 2012 six ministries, including the National Development and Reform Commission, jointly issued Guiding Opinions on Launching Serious Illness Insurance for Rural and Non-working Residents. So far, serious illness insurance has been piloted in 28 provincial-level administrative areas, and widely implemented in eight of them. In 2013 some 20 major diseases including lung cancer and gastric cancer were included in the serious illness insurance; children's phenylketonuria and hypospadias were included in the serious illness insurance under the new rural cooperative medical care system, bringing the number of serious diseases covered by the system to 22.
 
  失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险稳步发展,对于参保人维持稳定的生活水准、获得医疗救治和生育保障等发挥了越来越大的作用。2013年末,全国参加失业保险人数为16,417万人,比上年末增加1,192万人;全国工伤保险参保人数达到19,917万人,比上年增加907万人,其中参加工伤保险的农民工7,263万人,增加84万人。全国生育保险参保人数16,392万人,比上年底增加963万人。2013年有417万人享受了不同期限的失业保险待遇,年末有197万人领取失业保险金,月人均领取失业保险金水平为759元,比上年增加60.3元,增长8.5%。 Steady development has been seen in unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance, which are playing an increasingly bigger role in helping the insured to maintain their living standards and obtain medical treatment and maternity protection. At the end of 2013 some 164.17 million people were covered by unemployment insurance, an increase of 11.92 million over the end of 2012; 199.17 million people had access to work-related injury insurance, among whom 72.63 million were migrant workers, an increase of 9.07 million and 840,000 people as compared with 2012, respectively. As many as 163.92 million people were covered by maternity insurance, an increase of 9.63 million over 2012. In 2013 some 4.17 million people benefited from unemployment insurance of different durations, and 1.97 million people received unemployment insurance allowances at the end of the year, with an average amount of 759 yuan per month, up 60.3 yuan or 8.5 percent over the previous year.
 
  最低生活保障制度进一步完善。截至2013年,全国城市低保对象2,061.3万人,平均保障标准为373元/人·月,月人均获得补助252元,2013年累计支出保障资金724.2亿元,分别比2012年增长13.8%、1.3%和7.4%。截至2013年,全国农村低保对象5,382.1万人,占农业人口的6.1%;平均保障标准为2,434元/人·年,月人均获得补助111元,2013年累计支出保障资金841.9亿元,分别比2012年增长18.7%、2.9%和17.3%。截至2013年,全国农村五保供养对象538.2万人,平均供养标准为集中供养4,685元/人·年、分散供养3,499元/人·年,2013年累计支出五保供养资金161.6亿元,分别2012年增长15.4%、16.3%、11.5%。 The subsistence allowance system has been further improved. By the end of 2013 there were altogether 20.613 million urban recipients of the subsistence allowance. The average amount of the allowance was 373 yuan per person per month, the amount actually paid was 252 yuan, and a total of 72.42 billion yuan in allowances was extended in 2013, up 13.8 percent, 1.3 percent and 7.4 percent over 2012, respectively. By the end of 2013 there were 53.821 million rural recipients, making up 6.1 percent of the rural population; the average amount of the allowance was 2,434 yuan per person per year, the amount actually paid was 111 yuan per person per month, and a total of 84.19 billion yuan of allowances was extended, up 18.7 percent, 2.9 percent and 17.3 percent over 2012, respectively. Altogether 5.382 million rural people enjoyed the "five guarantees" (food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses) across the country, with those living in nursing homes receiving an average of 4,685 yuan per person per year, those living on their own an average of 3,499 yuan per person per year, totaling 16.16 billion yuan of the "five guarantee" funds spent in the year, up 15.4 percent, 16.3 percent and 11.5 percent, respectively, over 2012.
 
  对因遭受自然灾害、失去劳动能力或因其他原因陷入生活困境的社会成员实施社会救助,维持其最低生活水准,是社会保障权利的最后一道防护线和安全网。截至2013年,全国26个省份制定完善了临时救助政策。2013年,全国共实施临时救助3,937万户次。医疗救助惠及群体进一步扩大,救助对象从城乡低保对象、五保对象逐步向低收入重病患者、重度残疾人和低收入家庭老年人等特殊困难群体拓展。2013年累计支出医疗救助资金257.6亿元,救助2,639万人次。 It is the last safety net of social security rights to provide social assistance to and meet the basic subsistence needs of people in poverty, caused by natural disasters, loss of labor capacity, or due to other reasons. By the end of 2013 some 26 provincial-level administrative areas had formulated or improved their own temporary assistance policies. In 2013 some 39.37 million households received temporary assistance. An increasing number of people are benefiting from medical aid, and the target groups are gradually expanding from urban and rural recipients of subsistence allowances and people enjoying the "five guarantees" to groups with special difficulties including low-income patients with serious illnesses, people with severe disabilities and senior citizens from low-income households. A total of 25.76 billion yuan in medical aid funds was extended in 2013, benefiting 26.39 million people.
 
 
 
  三、民主权利 III. Democratic Rights
 
  中国宪法规定中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。在中国,人民依照宪法和法律规定,通过各种途径和方式行使民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督权利。2013年,首次实行城乡按相同人口比例选举全国人大代表,协商民主广泛多层制度化发展有力推进,作为直接行使民主权利重要方式的基层民主健康发展,惩治腐败、建设廉洁政治的力度加大,公民有序参与公共事务民主管理的形式更加丰富。 The Chinese Constitution stipulates that all power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. In China, the people exercise the rights of democratic election, democratic decision-making, democratic management, and democratic oversight through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the Constitution and other laws. In 2013 rural and urban areas in China for the first time adopted the same ratio of deputies to the represented population in the election to the NPC; extensive, multilevel and institutional development of consultative democracy were vigorously advanced; community-level democracy as an important means of directly exercising democratic rights witnessed sound development; efforts were increased to combat corruption and build political integrity; and Chinese citizens participated in democratic management of public affairs in more diversified forms.
 
  2013年,中国落实选举法规定的人人平等原则,正式全面实行城乡按相同人口比例选举全国人大代表。坚持地区平等原则,同级行政区域的法律地位平等,不论人口多少,在国家最高权力机关中均有一定数量的代表,地区基本名额数相同,选举第十二届全国人大代表的地区基本名额数为8名。坚持民族平等原则,在全国人大常委会确认的2,987名有效当选代表中,少数民族代表409名,占代表总数的13.69%,全国55个少数民族都有本民族的代表。第十二届全国人大女代表比例为23.4%,比上届提高2.07个百分点。基层代表数量增加,农民工代表数量倍增,党政领导干部代表数量减少。在第十二届全国人大代表中,来自一线工人农民的代表人数比上届增加5.18%,党政领导干部代表人数比上届减少6.93%。 In 2013 China implemented the principle that everyone is equal as stipulated in the Electoral Law of the People's Republic of China, and adopted the same ratio of deputies to the represented population in the election of NPC deputies in both rural and urban areas. It abides by the principle of regional equality inasmuch as administrative areas at the same level enjoy equal legal status, all are entitled to a certain number of deputies in the highest organ of state power regardless of their population sizes. Each of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government is entitled to have the same minimum number of NPC deputies, which was eight for the 12th NPC in 2013. China abides by the principle of ethnic equality, and of the elected 2,987 deputies confirmed by the NPC Standing Committee, 409 are from ethnic minorities, accounting for 13.69 percent of the total and covering all the 55 minority ethnic groups in China. Female deputies to the 12th NPC account for 23.4 percent, 2.07 percentage points up over the 11th NPC in 2008. In the 12th NPC the number of community-level deputies increased, the number of migrant worker deputies doubled, and the number of Party and government official deputies shrank, compared to the 11th NPC. Of the deputies to the 12th NPC, the number of worker and farmer deputies increased by 5.18 percent over the 11th NPC, and the number of Party and government official deputies decreased by 6.93 percent.
 
  人大积极推进民主立法,增强法律的可执行性、可操作性。2013年3月至2014年3月,全国人大常委会审议了15件法律和有关法律问题的决定草案,通过了其中的10件,修改了消费者权益保护法等21部法律,新制定了旅游法、特种设备安全法等法律。全国人大常委会探索法律出台前评估工作,完善公布法律草案征求意见机制,在向社会公布法律草案一次审议稿的基础上,明确法律草案二次审议稿也要向社会全文公布,广泛征求各方面补充意见和建议。健全公众意见采纳情况反馈机制,积极回应社会关切。全国人大及其常委会在立法过程中广泛采取诸如座谈会、网络征求意见、调查研究、列席、公民讨论、媒体讨论等形式广泛听取公民意见。2013年3月至2014年1月间,共有5,728人次对相关法律草案提出45,121条意见。以环境保护法修正案草案为例,草案初审稿向社会公布征求意见时收到11,748条意见,二审稿公布后收到2,434条网上意见和48封来信。每次公布草案征求意见结束后,全国人大常委会均对重要法律草案的意见整理汇总情况及时向社会作出反馈。 The NPC vigorously promotes democratic legislation, and enhances the enforceability and operability of the laws. From March 2013 to March 2014 the NPC Standing Committee deliberated on 15 decision drafts of laws and related legal issues, and adopted ten of them; amended 21 laws including the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests, and promulgated the Tourism Law of the People's Republic of China and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Safety of Special Equipment. The NPC Standing Committee evaluates law drafts before promulgation, improves the mechanism of soliciting public opinion for draft laws, and specifies that in addition to the first review draft, the full text of the second review draft should also be released to the public to extensively solicit supplementary opinions and proposals in all respects. China improves the feedback mechanism of public opinion adopted, and actively responds to social concerns. The NPC and its Standing Committee listen to the people's opinions during legislation in the forms of forums, online opinion collection, investigation and research, allowing people to listen to legislation deliberations, and discussion by citizens and the media. From March 2013 to January 2014 some 5,728 persons presented 45,121 opinions on draft laws. Take the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China (Draft Amendment) for example. Its first draft received 11,748 opinions, and the second draft received 2,434 online opinions and 48 letters. After soliciting opinions for released drafts of major laws, the NPC Standing Committee summarizes those opinions and issues such summaries to the public in a timely manner.
 
  进一步畅通拓宽权利救济渠道,积极回应群众利益诉求,尊重并保障民意。国家着力解决信访突出问题,强调从源头上预防和减少信访问题发生,健全公开透明的诉求表达和办理方式,突出领导干部接访下访重点,完善联合接访运行方式。全力打造“阳光信访”,推进网上信访信息综合平台建设,推动信访事项办理过程和结果全面公开,努力实现信访事项可查询、可跟踪、可督办、可评价。全面放开网上投诉受理内容,互联网逐步成为政府了解社情民意的新窗口。 China further clears and expands rights relief channels, actively responds to public interest appeals, and respects and protects public opinion. The government endeavors to resolve the prominent problems concerning petition letters and visits, stresses preventing and reducing petition problems at the source, promotes open and transparent petition presentation and solution, encourages leading officials to directly receive and visit petitioners, and improves the mechanism of joint reception of petitioners by government departments concerned. China spares no effort to promote "petition in the sunshine," advances the building of an online petition information platform, and promotes the full exposure of petition handling and results, striving to achieve effective inquiry, tracking, oversight and evaluation of petition information. China makes open all online petitions accepted for examination, and the Internet has gradually become a window for the government to learn about public opinion.
 
  建设廉洁政治是民主制度有效运行的前提。2013年,中国共产党和中国政府进一步加大反腐败工作力度,坚持用制度管权管事管人,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行。国务院机构改革全面启动,中央政府全年下放取消审批事项416项。针对一些领域腐败问题多发的现象,中共中央印发《建立健全惩治和预防腐败体系2013-2017年工作规划》。2013年,全国各级纪检监察机关共接受信访举报1,950,374件(次),其中检举控告类1,220,191件(次);立案172,532件,结案173,186件,处分182,038人。全国各级检察机关全年共立案侦查各类职务犯罪案件37,551件51,306人,同比分别上升9.4%和8.4%。突出查办大案要案,立案侦查贪污、贿赂、挪用公款100万元以上的案件2,581件,涉嫌犯罪的县处级以上国家工作人员2,871人,其中厅局级253人、省部级8人。各级法院充分发挥刑事审判在惩治腐败中的职能作用,加大对贪污贿赂等犯罪的打击力度,审结包括国家工作人员贪污贿赂、渎职侵权犯罪案件2.9万件,判处罪犯3.1万人。 Building political integrity is the premise of the effective operation of a democratic system. In 2013 the CPC and the Chinese government further intensified their efforts to combat corruption, putting power, government operations and personnel management under institutional checks to ensure that the people oversee the exercise of power and that power is exercised in a transparent manner. Institutional reform of the State Council was fully launched; the central government decentralized and canceled 416 items of administrative approvals in 2013. In view of multiple corruption problems in certain fields, the CPC Central Committee issued the Work Plan for Establishing and Improving the System of Preventing and Punishing Corruption (2013-2017). In 2013 discipline inspection and procuratorial organs at all levels received 1,950,374 complaints of related offences through petition visits and letters, including 1,220,191 accusatory and prosecutable cases; filed 172,532 cases, concluded 173,186 cases, and punished 182,038 violators. In 2013 procuratorial organs at all levels filed and investigated 37,551 cases of official crimes involving 51,306 suspects, up 9.4percent and 8.4percent respectively on a year-on-year basis. China increased its efforts to handle major cases, filed and investigated 2,581 cases of embezzlement, bribery and appropriation of public funds, each involving over 1 million yuan, and 2,871 state functionaries at and above the county/division level, including 253 officials at the prefecture/bureau level and eight at the provincial/ministerial level. The courts at all levels fully performed their duty of combating corruption through criminal trials, intensified efforts to punish embezzlement and bribery crimes, wound up 29,000 cases of embezzlement, bribery, dereliction of duty and infringement of rights by state functionaries, and convicted 31,000 persons.
 
  在中国,社会主义协商民主是人民民主权利实现的重要形式。社会主义协商民主不仅关注最终的决策结果,也关注决策过程中的广泛参与,不仅强调对多数人意见的尊重,也强调少数人意见的充分表达和权利的维护,拓宽了民主的广度,从而在最大程度上实现人民民主。2013年,中国加快构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,不断拓宽国家政权机关、政协组织、党派团体、基层组织、社会组织的协商渠道,深入开展立法协商、行政协商、民主协商、参政协商、社会协商。以这些具体协商形式为平台,就经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题在全社会进行广泛协商,增进和达成共识。作为协商民主的重要渠道,中国人民政治协商会议积极推进协商民主建设,创新以专题为内容、以界别为纽带、以专委会为依托、以座谈为方法的协商形式,积极开展专题协商、界别协商、对口协商、提案办理协商,推动协商活动的多样化,约请有关部门负责人直接听取意见,推动建言献策成果的转化。人民政协每年在协商议题、协商形式、活动组织等方面作出明确安排;继承和创新“双周协商座谈会”制度,分别就宏观经济形势、建筑产业化、维护职工群众切身利益、深化科技体制改革、加强汽车尾气治理等议题举办双周协商座谈会。 In China, socialist consultative democracy is an important form of ensuring the people's democratic rights. Socialist consultative democracy values final decision-making results as well as extensive public participation in decision-making, stresses respect for the opinion of the majority as well as ensuring that the minority can fully express their opinion and protect their own rights, thereby expanding the scope of democracy so as to realize the people's democracy to the maximum extent. In 2013 China accelerated the building of a consultative democratic system with reasonable procedures and complete links, expanded the consultation channels of state power organs, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) organizations, political parties and groups, community-level and non-governmental organizations, and conducted extensive consultations on issues relating to legislation, administration, democracy, political participation and social problems. Taking these specific consultation forms as the base, China conducted extensive consultations on major issues in social and economic development and specific problems concerning the immediate interests of the people, so as to reach and enhance agreement. As an important channel of consultative democracy, the CPPCC vigorously promotes consultative democracy, innovates consultation forms categorized by specialized topics, connecting all social circles, relying on special committees and by means of panel discussions; actively conducts consultations on particular topics, between representatives from relevant sectors of society, between parties with common concern, and with relevant departments in the handling of proposals. It promotes diversified consultation activities, invites responsible persons of related departments to listen to opinions and proposals directly, so as to transform such opinions and proposals into tangible results. The CPPCC makes specific plans for consultation topics, forms and activity organizations every year. In 2013, it carried on and innovated the biweekly "consultation symposium" mechanism, and conducted consultations on macroeconomy, architectural industrialization, protecting the interests of workers and staff members, deepening the reform of scientific and technological systems, enhancing automobile exhaust control and other topics.
 
  基层民主依法有序推进,公民选举、基层自治等权利的保障得到进一步强化。2013年,《中华人民共和国村民委员会选举规程》发布实施,进一步明确和细化了村委会换届选举的各项程序和要求。无记名投票、公开计票全面实行,秘密写票处普遍设置,竞职演讲、治村演说广泛推行。全国98%的村制订了村规民约和村民自治章程,群众参与村务决策管理的水平大幅提升。截至2013年,全国城镇普遍进行了7轮以上的社区居民委员会换届选举。社区中业主管理委员会等社会组织和志愿者组织在社区自我民主管理中发挥越来越大的作用。 Community-level democracy is being advanced in an orderly manner, and protection of electoral rights and community-level autonomy have been further strengthened. In 2013 the Procedures of the People's Republic of China on the Election of Villagers' Committees was promulgated and implemented, which further specifies the procedures and requirements of villagers' committee elections. Secret ballot and open vote-counting are fully practiced; secret ballot booths have been set up; and campaign speeches and village governance speeches are being extensively promoted. Now, 98percent of villages in China have formulated village regulations, villagers' agreements and rules for self-governance by villagers; villager's participation in decision-making and management of their own affairs has been improved by a large margin. By the end of 2013 cities and towns throughout China had held seven rounds of general elections for community residents' committees. Proprietors' management committees and other non-government and volunteer organizations are now playing a greater role in community democratic self-governance.
 
 
 
  四、言论自由权利 IV. Rights to Freedom of Speech
 
  中国政府致力于促进和保护本国人民的言论自由。言论自由是中国宪法规定的一项公民基本权利。在中国,公民可以在宪法和法律允许的范围内自由表达自己的见解和意愿,发表研究、创作成果。随着经济社会的发展,公众实现言论自由的手段日益丰富,获取信息的需求得到更好满足,言论自由空间不断扩大,言论自由权利不断发展。 The Chinese government endeavors to promote and protect the freedom of speech of Chinese nationals. Freedom of speech is a basic civil right stipulated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In China citizens can express their views and will and publish research and creative achievements freely within the range allowed by the Constitution and other laws. With social and economic development, the means of realizing freedom of speech has been diversified day by day, the public's information needs have been better satisfied, the space of freedom of speech has been increasingly expanded, and the people's rights to freedom of speech have steadily developed.
 
  公民实现言论自由的途径和手段日益丰富。2013年,中国出版各类报纸482亿份,各类期刊33亿册,图书79亿册(张);有线电视用户为2.29亿户,有线数字电视用户为1.72亿户;广播节目综合人口覆盖率为97.8%;电视节目综合人口覆盖率为98.4%。近年来,中国各种新闻传播媒介更加重视联系群众、面向实际生活,发挥舆论监督作用。公众通过新闻传播媒介自由地发表意见,提出批评建议,讨论国家和社会的各种问题。 The channels and means for citizens to realize freedom of speech have been diversified day by day. In 2013 China printed 48.2 billion copies of newspapers, 3.3 billion copies of periodicals and 7.9 billion copies of books; some 229 million households had access to cable TV while 172 million households had access to cable DTV; radio programs covered 97.8 percent of the total population, and television programs covered 98.4 percent. In recent years China's news media have paid more attention to maintaining contact with the public, focusing on reporting real life, and playing their due role of press supervision. The public freely expresses its opinions through the news media, brings forward criticisms and proposals, and discusses state affairs and social concerns.
 
  互联网成为公民表达意见和发表言论的重要渠道之一。20年来,中国投入大量资金建设互联网基础设施,建起了覆盖全国、惠及全民的互联网基础设施,促进了互联网的普及和应用。中国互联网发展与普及水平居发展中国家前列。2013年,国家继续加大对信息基础设施建设的政策支持和资金投入力度,普及推广卫星通讯、光纤通信、计算机网络等技术。实施“宽带中国”战略,首次将宽带网络作为新时期国家经济社会发展的战略性公共基础设施。截至2013年底,中国网民规模达6.18亿,互联网普及率为45.8%;域名总数为1,844万个,网站总数为320万个,网页数量为1,500亿个;论坛/bbs的用户数量为1.2亿人,博客和个人空间用户数量为4.37亿人,社交网站用户数量为2.78亿人,网络文学用户数为2.74亿人,网络视频用户数量为4.28亿人,微博用户数量为2.81亿人,即时通信用户数量为5.32亿人;手机即时通信用户为4.31亿,手机微博用户达到1.96亿。截至2013年底,中国提供互联网教育信息服务的网站有5,820个,提供互联网新闻信息服务的网站有703个,提供互联网文化产品服务的网站有783个,提供互联网视听节目服务的网站有282个,提供互联网出版服务的网站有292个,提供互联网电子公告信息服务的网站有2,010个。 The Internet has become one of the most important channels for the public to express its opinion. Over the past two decades China has injected huge amounts of funds into Internet infrastructure construction covering the whole country and benefitting all people, and promoted Internet popularization and application. Internet development and popularization in China ranks top among developing countries. In 2013 the state continued to increase policy support for and funds in information infrastructure construction, popularized satellite communication, fiber optical communication, computer networks and other related technologies. The country implemented the "broadband China" strategy, and for the first time regarded broadband network as a strategic public infrastructure for national socioeconomic development in the new era. By the end of 2013 the number of netizens in China reached 618 million and the Internet coverage rate 45.8 percent; domain names totaled 18.44 million, websites 3.2 million and webpages 150 billion; Internet forum/bulletin board system (BBS) users numbered 120 million, blog and personal webpage users 437 million, social networking website users 278 million, network literature users 274 million, network video users 428 million, microblog users 281 million and instant messaging (IM) users 532 million. Cellphone IM users numbered 431 million and cellphone microblog users 196 million. By the end of 2013 there were 5,820 websites in China providing Internet education information services, 703 providing Internet news information services, 783 providing Internet cultural products, 282 providing Internet audio-visual programs, 292 providing Internet publishing services and 2,010 providing Internet BBS services.
 
  有效保障信息获取是言论自由实现的前提。在中国,公众可以通过多种渠道获取需要的信息。权力运行的公开化、规范化,立法公开、政务公开和司法公开等制度的进一步完善,使政务信息有效供给状况持续改善。全国人大及其常委会就重要法律草案公开征求意见,地方人大实行立法旁听,并通过人大官方网站等媒体,对通过的法律及时作出权威解读,使各方面准确理解立法的背景、目的和法律的原则、内容。国务院重点推进行政审批、财政预决算、保障性住房、食品药品安全、征地拆迁等领域的信息公开。新闻发言人制度进一步规范化。2013年,国务院新闻办公室围绕党和国家重要会议、重大决策和重点工作,组织新闻发布会50多场;各部门各地区召开新闻发布会、吹风会2,100多场。越来越多的地方和部门主要负责人走上新闻发布前台,积极回应社会关注,及时准确发布有关信息。 Effective information acquisition is the premise for realizing freedom of speech. In China, people can obtain information through multiple channels. Open and procedure-based exercise of power, transparent legislation, government operations and judicature and other mechanisms have been further improved, which have continuously improved the effective provision of information about government work. The NPC and its Standing Committee solicit public opinion on major draft laws; local people's congresses allow people to listen to legislation deliberations, and provide timely authoritative interpretations of adopted laws through media, including their own official websites, so as to ensure that people of all walks of life accurately understand the legislation background and purpose, and the principles and contents of the laws. The State Council focuses on advancing information disclosure in administrative approval, financial budget and final accounts, government-subsidized housing, food and drug security, land expropriation and house demolition, and other fields. The press spokesperson system has been further improved. In 2013 the Information Office of the State Council organized more than 50 press conferences centered on the Party's and the state's major conferences, decisions and work. Meanwhile, departments under the State Council and information offices under local governments held over 2,100 press conferences and briefings. More and more chief responsible persons of departments under the State Council and local governments have appeared at press conferences to actively respond to social concerns and release related information in a timely fashion.
 
  最高人民法院发布《关于推进司法公开三大平台建设的若干意见》和《关于人民法院在互联网公布裁判文书的规定》,全面推进审判流程公开、裁判文书公开、执行信息公开三大平台建设,增进公众对司法裁判的知情了解。中国法院庭审直播网建成,各级法院全年直播案件庭审4.5万次。济南市中级人民法院通过微博全程直播薄熙来案庭审情况,受到广泛、积极关注。各类互联网信息服务网站为公众有效获取信息提供服务的水平大大提高。 The Supreme People's Court issued the Several Opinions on Advancing the Building of Three Major Platforms of Judicial Openness and the Regulations for the People's Courts to Make Public the Judgment Documents on the Internet, so as to fully promote openness in trial procedures, judicial papers and adjudication enforcement, and to enhance public understanding of judicial decisions. The China Court's Live Trial website has been set up, on which people's courts at all levels have so far live-broadcast 45,000 court trials. The Jinan Intermediate People's Court live-telecast Bo Xilai's court trial through a microblog, which received extensive and positive attention. Internet information service websites of all kinds have greatly improved their service capability to ensure effective information acquisition by the public.
 
  中国社会存在广泛的言论自由。学术领域的探索和讨论,涵盖政治、社会、文化等各个方面。在宪法和法律的范围内,公众都可以对各种政治问题进行自由的讨论。政府的重要政策都会在事前和事后得到广泛讨论,各方面立场的意见都能充分表达。互联网的普及和完善,极大地扩展了言论自由空间。公众可以通过网络论坛、网络新闻、博客/个人空间、社交网站、网络文学、网络视频、微博、即时通信等多种互联网平台发表言论。每时每刻都有海量言论被网民发表出来。据统计,中国网民每天发布和转发微博信息达2.5亿条,每天发送微信等即时通信工具信息超过200亿条。根据对新浪微博和腾讯微信等7家网站所发帖文的统计,在2013年网民关注的20大热点事件中,前12位的帖文都超过了200万条,其中排第一位的帖文数量超过4500万条。网民言论关注的范围十分广泛,涵盖了司法案件、民生问题、个人权益保护、医患纠纷、反腐败等各方面。 Chinese people enjoy extensive freedom of speech. Research and discussion in academic fields cover politics, society, culture and other aspects. Within the range allowed by the Constitution and other laws, the public can discuss political issues freely. Important government policies are widely discussed before and after being adopted, and opinions from all quarters can be fully expressed. The popularization and improvement of the Internet have dramatically expanded the space of freedom of speech. The public can express opinions through Internet forums, Netnews, blog/personal webpages, social networking websites, network literature, network videos, microblogs, IM and other Internet platforms. Netizens post an immense number of opinions all the time. According to statistics, Chinese netizens post and forward 250 million microblog messages and over 20 billion WeChat and other IM messages every day. According to the statistics about the texts posted by seven websites including Sina microblog and Tencent microblog, of the 20 top issues that received netizens' attention in 2013, the first 12 received over two million messages each, and the top one over 45 million messages. Netizens' attention, opinions and statements cover a wide range, including legal cases, the people's livelihood, individual rights and interests protection, patient-hospital disputes, and combating corruption.
 
  言论自由的有效实现为公众监督政府提供了保证。人们可以通过新闻媒体、互联网等各种渠道反映社会问题,对各级政府的工作提出批评和建议,对公务人员的行为进行监督。中国地方政府网站普遍设立了市长信箱、县长信箱等,接受民众的来信。中央纪检监察机构和最高人民法院、最高人民检察院等开设了举报网站,便于公众反映问题。公众对政府工作提出的建议和批评,受到各级政府的高度关注,成为政府改进工作和决策的重要参考。 Effective realization of freedom of speech ensures that the public oversee the government. People can present social problems through news media, the Internet and other channels, forward criticisms and proposals to governments at all levels and supervise the behavior of civil servants. Many local government websites in China have a municipal mayor's mailbox or county head's mailbox to receive letters from the public. The central discipline inspection and procuratorial organs, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate have set up offence-reporting websites for the public. The public's proposals for and criticisms of government work receive high attention of governments at all levels, and have become important references for them to improve their work and decision-making.
 
 
  五、人身权利 V. Rights of the Person
 
  生命健康权、人身自由权、人格尊严权等人身权利的保护状况,是衡量一个国家人权保护水平的最重要的标尺之一。2013年,中国废止劳动教养制度,采取专项行动打击拐卖犯罪、查找解救被拐妇女儿童,依法惩处严重侵害公民人身权利的犯罪,完善冤假错案防止、纠正机制,多措并举保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和被羁押人的人身权利,加大安全生产、食品药品等重点领域执法力度,公民人身权利得到切实保障。 The effectiveness of a country's protection of its citizens' rights of life and health, of personal liberty, of personal dignity and other rights of the person is one important gauge of examining that nation's human rights protection effort. In 2013 China abolished the reeducation through labor system, waged special campaigns against human trafficking, searched for and rescued abducted and trafficked women and children, punished serious violations of its citizens' rights of the person in accordance with the law, improved the mechanism for preventing and rectifying unjust, false and erroneous charges, took various measures in ensuring the rights of suspects, defendants and detainees, and strengthened law-enforcement in key areas such as workplace safety, and food and drug production, effectively safeguarding the Chinese citizens' rights of the person.
 
  在中国,实行了50多年的劳动教养制度在特定条件下为维护社会治安秩序、确保社会稳定、教育挽救违法人员发挥了积极作用。随着治安管理处罚法、禁毒法等法律的施行和刑法的不断完善,以及相关法律的有机衔接,劳动教养制度的作用逐渐被取代,劳动教养措施的使用逐年减少。自2013年3月起,各地基本停止使用劳动教养。2013年12月28日全国人大常委会通过废止有关劳动教养法律规定的决定,废止了劳动教养制度;并对正在被依法执行劳动教养的人员,解除劳动教养,剩余期限不再执行。 With over 50 years of operation in China, the system of reeducation through labor played a positive role in protecting public security, maintaining social order, ensuring social stability, and educating and rescuing lawbreakers in certain historical circumstances. But over time its functions were gradually replaced with the implementation of laws such as the Law on Penalties for Administration of Public Security and the Law on Narcotics Control, and also with the improvements in the Criminal Law. Also, as the relevant laws became increasingly applicable in cases of reeducation through labor, the correction system played a lesser role over the years. Since March 2013 the system has been basically suspended in China. On December 28, 2013 the Standing Committee of the NPC passed a decision on abolishing legal provisions pertaining to reeducation through labor, putting an end to the system. It was also decided that persons who were receiving reeducation through labor as prescribed by law should be released and exempted from their remaining terms.
 
  妇女儿童的人身权利得到有效保障。国家制定实施《中国反对拐卖人口行动计划(2013-2020年)》。2013年,全国共侦破拐卖妇女案件5,126起、拐卖儿童案件2,765起;利用全国公安机关打拐DNA信息系统为631名儿童找到亲生父母。制定依法惩治性侵害未成年人犯罪的意见,严厉打击性侵幼女、校园性侵等犯罪行为,起诉拐卖妇女儿童犯罪嫌疑人2,395人。 The rights of the person of women and children have been effectively protected. The state has implemented China's Action Plan Against Human Trafficking (2013-2020). In 2013 China cracked 5,126 and 2,765 cases of abducted and trafficked women and children, respectively, and united 631 abducted children with their biological parents through the DNA database network of public security organs. The state has issued opinions on punishing crimes of sexually assaulting minors, in accordance with the law, and rigorously cracks down upon such crimes as sexually assaulting girls under the age of 14 and teachers sexually assaulting students. In 2013 criminal charges were pressed against 2,395 persons suspected of abducting and trafficking women and children.
 
  精神障碍患者人身自由等权利得到特别保护。精神卫生法于2013年5月1日开始实施,精神障碍的住院治疗实行自愿原则和尽可能限制非自愿医疗原则,禁止利用约束、隔离等保护性医疗措施惩罚精神障碍患者,医疗机构不得强迫精神障碍患者从事生产劳动。 Special emphasis has been given to the protection of the rights of the person of people with mental disorders. The Law on Mental Health came into effect May 1, 2013, and applies the principles of free will and restriction on involuntary hospitalization for patients with mental disorders. It is prohibited to use constraints and isolation and other protective measures as means for punishing mentally disturbed patients, and medical institutions are not allowed to force their patients with mental disorders to engage in production or other kinds of labor.
 
  依法惩处严重影响人民群众安全感、侵害公民人身权利的犯罪。2013年,全国各级检察机关批准逮捕严重暴力犯罪、黑恶势力犯罪、多发性侵财犯罪、毒品犯罪嫌疑人500,055人,提起公诉580,485人。各级人民法院全年审结杀人、抢劫、绑架、爆炸、强奸、拐卖妇女儿童、黑社会性质组织犯罪等案件25万件,判处罪犯32.5万人。 The state punishes crimes seriously undermining the people' s sense of security and infringing upon the citizens' rights of the person. In 2013 China's procuratorial organs at all levels issued arrest warrants for 500,055 persons suspected of severe violent crimes, gang crimes, repeated crimes against property, and drug dealing. A total of 580,485 persons were indicted for criminal acts. People's courts at all levels concluded 250,000 cases of homicide, robbery, kidnapping, explosion, rape, trafficking of children and women, and gang-related organized crime, convicting 325,000 persons.
 
  防止和纠正冤假错案的措施进一步加强。2013年,公安部发布《关于进一步加强和改进刑事执法办案工作,切实防止发生冤假错案的通知》等文件,深化错案预防制度机制建设,加强对执法办案全方位、全过程、即时性监督,从源头上防止冤假错案的发生。最高人民检察院发布《关于切实履行检察职能,防止和纠正冤假错案的若干意见》,健全检察环节错案发现、纠正、防范和责任追究机制;严把事实关、证据关、程序关和法律适用关,对侦查机关不应当立案而立案的,督促撤案25,211件;对滥用强制措施、违法取证、刑讯逼供等侦查活动违法情形,提出纠正意见72,370件次;对证据不足和不构成犯罪的,决定不批捕100,157人、不起诉16,427人。保障犯罪嫌疑人诉讼权利和律师执业权利,监督纠正指定居所监视居住不当606件,监督纠正阻碍辩护人行使诉讼权利案件2,153件。加强羁押必要性审查,对不需要继续羁押的23,894名犯罪嫌疑人建议释放或者变更强制措施。注重保障被羁押人员合法权益,监督纠正刑罚执行和监管活动中的违法情形42,873件次;督促清理久押不决案件,监督纠正超期羁押432人次。最高人民法院发布关于适用刑事诉讼法的司法解释共548条,这是新中国成立以来条文最多的司法解释。非法证据排除、上诉不加刑等保护当事人各项诉讼权利的原则得以细化落实。2013年10月9日,最高人民法院发布了《关于建立健全防范刑事冤假错案工作机制的意见》,坚持疑罪从无原则,规定对定罪证据不足的案件,应当依法宣告被告人无罪;采用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集的供述,应当排除;未在规定的办案场所讯问取得的供述,未依法对讯问进行全程录音录像取得的供述,以及不能排除以非法方法取得的供述,应当予以排除。确保无罪的人不受刑事追究。全年各级法院依法宣告825名被告人无罪,并对在申诉中发现的冤假错案,依法予以再审改判。 Measures for preventing and rectifying unjust, false and erroneous charges have been further strengthened. In 2013 the Ministry of Public Security issued the Notice on Further Strengthening and Improving the Criminal Enforcement and Case Handling, and Effectively Preventing Unjust, False and Erroneous Charges and other related documents, in an effort to improve the system for preventing erroneous charges, reinforce supervision over law enforcement and case handling in an all-around, real-time manner that covers the whole procedure, and prevent unjust, false and erroneous charges at the source. The Supreme People's Procuratorate issued the Opinions on Diligently Performing Procuratorial Duties and Preventing and Rectifying Unjust, False and Erroneous Charges, and strives to improve the mechanism for identifying, correcting and preventing erroneous charges during the procuratorial phase and also the accountability system. It exercises strict supervision over case handling, to ensure that the facts are accurate, evidence genuine, procedures correct and laws applicable. In 2013 the Procuratorate supervised the withdrawal of 25,211 ineligible charges filed by organs of investigation; and rectified 72,370 occasions of misuse of coercive measures, collection of evidence by illegal means and extortion of confession by torture; decided against arrest on 100,157 occasions and against prosecution on 16,427 persons for lack of evidence and for cases that did not constitute crimes. The Procuratorate protects the right of action of suspects and the right of practice of lawyers. In 2013 it supervised the correction of 606 cases of improper surveillance of suspects who were confined to designated residences, and 2,153 cases of obstructing the exercise of the right of action by defenders; strengthened the examination of necessity for detention, and advised the release of or change of coercive measures for 23,894 suspects. The Procuratorate attaches importance to protecting the legitimate rights and interests of detainees. In 2013 it supervised the correction of violations of law during the execution of penalties and supervision activities on 42,873 occasions, urged the closing of long-pending cases with suspects in prolonged detention, and supervised the correction of extended custody on 432 occasions. In 2013 the Supreme People's Court issued 548 judicial interpretations on the application of the Criminal Procedure Law-the most judicial interpretations to a law since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. The exclusion of illegal evidence, the principle of no additional penalty for making appeals and other principles that protect the litigation right of defendants have been implemented with detailed measures. On October 9, 2013 the Supreme People's Court issued the Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Working Mechanism for Preventing Unjust, False and Erroneous Criminal Charges. Adhering to the principle of assuming innocence until proven guilty, the Opinions stipulate that the defendants should be acquitted in accordance with the law in case of insufficient incriminating evidence; confession extorted by torture or other illegal means should be excluded, as should confession obtained from interrogation sessions conducted at undesignated sites, from interrogation sessions the whole procedure of which is not videotaped, and from interrogation sessions in which the possibility of the use of illegal means cannot be ruled out. The Court ensures that innocent persons are not held criminally liable. In 2013 the people's courts at all levels acquitted a total of 825 defendants in accordance with the law, and ran retrials of unjust, false and erroneous charges discovered during appeal and quashed the original judgments in these cases.
 
  犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和被羁押者的人身权利得到更好保障。2013年,公安部制定《公安机关执法办案场所办案区使用管理规定》,规范办案区的使用和管理,严格实行讯问询问过程录音录像制度;实施新的《看守所建设标准》,深入推行看守所医疗卫生社会化,要求所有看守所都要向社会开放,提高执法工作透明度。人民检察院按照“全面、全程、全部”原则,进一步完善了同步录音录像制度,切实保障犯罪嫌疑人的合法权利。 Protection of the rights of the person of criminal suspects, defendants and detainees has been enhanced. In 2013 the Ministry of Public Security issued the Regulations on the Use and Administration of Areas and Sites for Law Enforcement and Case Handling by Public Security Organs, which stipulates the use and administration of areas for case handling, with a strict code for audio- and video-recording interrogation and inquiry sessions. The Ministry adopted a new version of the Standards for Building Detention Centers, vigorously promoted the use of social resources for detainees' medical care, and required all detention centers to be made open to the public to ensure a higher level of transparency of law enforcement. The people's procuratorates further improved synchronized audio- and video-recording system, effectively protecting the legitimate rights of suspects.
 
  针对生产生活领域存在的威胁人民群众生命与健康安全的因素,国家加大了相关工作力度。立法部门针对人身安全领域的突出问题完善了相关法律。全国人大常委会制定了特种设备安全法,重点强化了特种设备生产安装、经营使用、维护保养、检验检测等全过程监管,确立了特种设备身份管理制度、质量责任追溯制度、产品召回和报废制度等,依法加强特种设备安全监管,保护人民群众生命财产权。执法部门持续强化全国重点行业领域安全排查治理工作,全年共排查治理隐患681.5万项,整改率97.9%。加大事故查处和挂牌督办力度,查处重特大事故44起,结案周期同比缩短109天,并及时公布事故调查报告。检察机关同步介入重特大事故调查,立案侦查火灾、矿难等事故背后的失职渎职、受贿等职务犯罪案件1,066人。国家高度重视食品药品安全,制定实施有关司法解释,依法惩处危害食品药品安全犯罪。各级检察机关全年起诉制售有毒有害食品、制售假药劣药等犯罪嫌疑人10,540人,最高人民检察院对785起危害食品药品安全犯罪案件挂牌督办。各级法院审结相关案件2,082件,判处罪犯2,647人。 The state strengthened its efforts to defuse threats to people's security and health in their work and life. The legislature improved relevant laws for dealing with key problems related to personal safety, and the Standing Committee of the NPC enacted the Law on Special Equipment Safety, strengthening supervision and control over the whole process of the manufacturing and installation, operation and utilization, maintenance and care, and examination and testing of special equipment. The Law established an identity management system, an accountability system of product quality, and a recall and scrap system for special equipment, strengthening supervision of special equipment safety in accordance with the law so as to protect the people's rights of life and property. Departments of law enforcement continued to strengthen their troubleshooting effort in focus industries and areas, defusing hidden dangers on 6.815 million occasions with a correction rate of 97.9 percent in 2013. More effort was put into the investigation of accidents and a time limit was set for the cracking of related cases under the supervision of relevant authorities, and 44 cases of serious and major accidents were investigated and handled. The average period for closing a case was 109 days shorter on a year-on-year basis, and investigation reports of accidents were made public in a timely manner. Procuratorial organs conducted immediate intervention in the case of serious and major accidents, and investigated cases of dereliction of duty, malfeasance, bribery and other power-abuse crimes behind fires and mining accidents, with a total of 1,066 persons investigated. The state attaches great importance to food and drug safety, and has issued relevant judicial interpretations for punishing crimes that harm food and drug safety in accordance with the law. In 2013 procuratorial organs at all levels pressed charges against 10,540 persons suspected of manufacturing and selling poisonous or hazardous food, adulterant drugs or drugs of inferior quality, and the Supreme People's Procuratorate set time limit to urge the handling of 785 cases of crimes that menaced food and drug safety. The people's courts at all levels concluded 2,082 relevant cases, with 2,647 persons convicted.
 
 
  六、少数民族权利 VI. Rights of Ethnic Minorities
 
  中国从宪法、法律和制度等多个层面确立了各民族一律平等、共同管理国家事务的原则,同时又尊重各民族的差异和特点,从各个方面保障少数民族在政治、经济、文化、语言及风俗习惯、宗教信仰等方面的平等权利。2013年,中国少数民族和民族地区各项事业不断取得新成绩、新发展,各少数民族充分享有并有效行使各项基本权利。 China has established the principle that all ethnic groups are equal and jointly participate in the management of state affairs on the constitutional, legal and systemic levels. The state respects the cultural differences and lifestyles of ethnic groups, and ensures the equal rights of ethnic minorities in politics, economy, culture, language and folk customs, religious belief and other aspects, with coordinated measures. In 2013 China's ethnic minorities and areas inhibited by ethnic minorities made new achievements and developments in various undertakings, and all ethnic minorities fully enjoyed and effectively exercised their basic rights.
 
  少数民族的政治权利得到充分保障。各少数民族聚居的地方实行民族区域自治制度,享有广泛的自治权利,包括立法权、对国家有关法律法规的变通执行权、使用民族语言文字的权利、人事管理权、财政管理权和自主发展文化教育权等。民族区域自治的特色和优势在新疆维吾尔自治区表现尤为突出。新疆是以维吾尔族为主体的民族自治地方,是全国唯一的三级(区、州、县)自治地方俱全的自治区。在维吾尔族以外的新疆其他少数民族聚居地区,有哈萨克、回、柯尔克孜、蒙古等4个民族的5个自治州,以及哈萨克、回、蒙古、塔吉克、锡伯等5个民族的6个自治县,还有42个民族乡。新疆维吾尔自治区各级自治机关根据本地实际制定并实施自治法规、地方性法规和具有法律效力的决议,依法保障民族自治地方的自治权利。 The political rights of ethnic minorities are fully guaranteed. Areas inhibited by ethnic minorities in compact communities exercising regional ethnic autonomy enjoy autonomous rights in a wide range of areas, including legislative power, flexibility in the execution of relevant state laws and regulations, the right to use their own spoken and written languages, personnel management power, financial management power, and the right of independently developing their special culture and education. The advantages of regional ethnic autonomy are best exemplified in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Xinjiang is an ethnic autonomous area mainly inhibited by the Uygur people. It is China's only autonomous region with all three administrative levels of autonomous areas (region, prefecture and county). In other parts of Xinjiang inhabited by ethnic minorities, except the Uygur, in compact communities, there are five autonomous prefectures where the Kazak, Hui, Kirgiz and Mongolian people are concentrated; six autonomous counties where the Kazak, Hui, Mongolian, Tajik and Xibe people live; and 42 townships where various ethnic minorities live. Autonomous organs at all levels in Xinjiang formulate and implement autonomous regulations, local rules and regulations, and legally binding decisions in light of their actual conditions, ensuring the autonomous rights of ethnic autonomous areas.
 
  全国55个少数民族都有本民族的全国人大代表和全国政协委员。155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中,均有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任;民族自治地方政府的主席、州长、县长(旗长),均由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。西藏自治区历届人民代表大会常务委员会主任和人民政府主席均由藏族公民担任。藏族和其他少数民族的人大代表始终在全区各级人大代表中占有绝对多数。在西藏,经过直接和间接选举产生的现任34,244名四级人大代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表31,901名,占93%以上。在全区干部队伍中,藏族和其他少数民族占82.05%,其中县乡两级领导班子中,藏族和其他少数民族占80.06%。 All China's 55 ethnic minority groups elect deputies to the NPC and members to the National Committee of the CPPCC. The chairpersons or vice chairpersons of the standing committees of the people's congresses of all 155 areas where regional ethnic autonomy is exercised, as well as the heads of government of autonomous regions, prefectures, counties or banners are citizens of the ethnic group or groups exercising regional autonomy in the areas concerned. In the Tibet Autonomous Region the chairpersons of past standing committees of the people's congress and the heads of the people's government have all been Tibetans. Tibetan deputies and deputies from other minority groups to the NPC have always constituted the absolute majority among deputies of the region at all levels. In Tibet, of the 34,244 directly and indirectly elected deputies to the NPC at all four levels, 31,901 persons, or 93 percent, are from the Tibetan or other minority communities. Also, 82.05 percent of the total number of the Tibet Autonomous Region's officials are Tibetan or from other minority groups, and 80.06 percent of the total number of leading officials of counties and townships are Tibetan or from other minority groups.
 
  少数民族经济社会权利得到充分保障。国家对少数民族和民族地区经济社会发展投入力度继续加大,少数民族和民族地区的经济社会发展取得显著成效。2013年,在均衡性转移支付向民族地区倾斜的基础上,中央财政安排民族地区转移支付464亿元,比2012年增长10.5%。国家对内蒙古、广西、西藏、宁夏、新疆五个自治区和贵州、云南、青海三个少数民族人口较多省份的扶贫投入大幅提高,中央财政扶贫资金投入166.05亿元,占全国总投入的43.76%,资金总量比2012年增加了16.8%。2013年,国家深入贯彻落实“十二五”扶持人口较少民族发展、兴边富民行动和少数民族事业三个国家级专项规划,继续加大对少数民族和民族地区的专项扶持力度,安排扶持人口较少民族发展专项资金14.5亿元、兴边富民行动专项资金27.9亿元、少数民族特色村寨保护专项资金4亿元,分别比2012年增长13.1%、50%和53.8%。2013年,西藏自治区生产总值(GDP)达807.67亿元,比上年增长12.5%;农牧民人均纯收入达到6,578元,比上年增长15%,连续11年保持两位数以上的增长;城镇居民人均可支配收入达20,023元,比上年增长11.1%。2013年,新疆维吾尔自治区生产总值(GDP)8,510亿元,比上年增长11.1%;人均地区生产总值37,847元,增长9.7%。2013年,新疆农村居民人均纯收入7,296元,比上年增长14.1%;城镇居民人均可支配收入19,874元,比上年增长10.9%。城镇人均家庭总收入22,388元,比上年增长10.9%,比1978年增长69.5倍。2013年,西藏农牧民人均居住面积为30.51平方米,城镇居民人均居住面积为42.81平方米,各项民生事业显著改善。特别是,连续8年累计投资273.57亿元的农牧民安居工程全面完成,全区46.03万户、230万农牧民住上了安全适用的房屋,农牧民生产生活条件得到历史性改善。水、电、路、讯、气、广播电视、邮政等农村综合配套设施建设加快推进,乡镇通邮率、乡镇通公路率和行政村通公路率分别达到94.6%、99.7%和97.4%。墨脱公路全线通车,结束了全国最后一个县不通公路的历史。川藏联网工程开工建设。青藏铁路客运量219.9万人次、货运量405.2万吨,航空旅客运输273万人次。 The socioeconomic rights of ethnic minorities are fully protected. The state continues to increase funds in promoting socioeconomic development in areas inhibited by ethnic minorities, and significant achievements have been made in this regard. In 2013, with more transfer payments diverted to ethnic minority areas, the central government arranged 46.4 billion yuan of transfer payments to ethnic minority areas, up by 10.5 percent as compared with 2012. The state increased poverty-reduction funding by a large margin for the Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang autonomous regions, and Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai provinces, which have large numbers of ethnic minority inhabitants. The central government appropriated 16.605 billion yuan as poverty-reduction fund, or 43.76 percent of the total volume from all sources, growing by 16.8 percent compared to 2012. In 2013 the state took concrete measures to implement three special programs, as stated in the Twelfth Five-year Plan, namely, supporting the development of minority groups with small populations, vitalizing border areas and bring prosperity to their residents, and developing special undertakings for ethnic minorities. The state continued to increase support to ethnic minorities and areas inhabited by minorities, providing 1.45 billion yuan as specialized funds for the development of minority groups with small populations, 2.79 billion yuan as specialized funds for vitalizing border areas and bringing prosperity to their residents, and 400 million yuan as specialized funds for protecting ethnic minority villages with cultural significance. These funds increased by 13.1 percent, 50 percent and 53.8 percent, respectively, as compared to 2012. In 2013 the GDP of the Tibet Autonomous Region reached 80.767 billion yuan, growing by 12.5 percent over the previous year; the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen was 6,578 yuan, increasing by 15 percent over the previous year and well into the 11th year of double-digit growth; and the per capita disposable income of urban residents reached 20,023 yuan, up by 11.1 percent compared with 2012. In 2013 the GDP of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was 851 billion yuan, growing by 11.1 percent compared to the previous year; and the per capita GDP was 37,847 yuan, an increase of 9.7 percent. In 2013 the per capita net income of rural residents in Xinjiang reached 7,296 yuan, growing by 14.1 percent over the previous year; and the per capita disposable income of urban residents was 19,874 yuan, increasing by 10.9 percent over the previous year. The per capita total income of urban households was 22,388 yuan, up by 10.9 percent compared to the previous year and was 69.5 times more than that of 1978. In 2013 the per capita living space of Tibetan farmers and herdsmen and urban residents was 30.51 sq m and 42.81 sq m, respectively, and significant progress was made in various undertakings for improving the local people' s lives. The housing project for farmers and herdsmen, in particular, was completed after eight years of incremental investment that totaled 27.357 billion yuan. The region's 2.3 million farmers and herdsmen of 460,300 households moved into solid and convenient houses, and a historic improvement was made in the working and living conditions of farmers and herdsmen. More progress was made in the building of supporting facilities in rural areas, including water, power, road, communications, gas, radio and television, and postal services. A total of 94.6 percent and 99.7 percent of Tibet's townships and towns respectively now have access to postal services and the road network, respectively, and 97.4 percent of incorporated villages have access to road transportation. The Motuo Highway opened to traffic in 2013, connecting China's last isolated county to the national road network. Construction of the Sichuan-Tibet highway network project began. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway transported a total of 2.199 million passengers and 4.052 million tons of cargo, and civil aircraft carried 2.73 million passengers.
 
  少数民族文化和民族地区文化繁荣发展。截至2013年,全国建立民族文字图书出版社32家,民族语言文字类音像电子出版单位13家,编辑出版民族文字期刊222种、民族文字报纸99种、民族文字图书9,429种。民族自治地方有广播电台73座,节目441套,民族语言节目100个;电视台90座,节目489套,民族语言节目100个;各类文化机构50,834个,其中图书馆653个,文化馆784个,文化站8,153个,博物馆385个。少数民族传统文化得到保护。国家设立贵州省黔东南民族文化生态保护实验区,有效推进民族地区非物质文化遗产的整体性保护。继续加强对少数民族传统医药的保护和发展。支持民族医药老专家建立传承工作室,扶持建立藏、蒙、壮、回4个民族医学术流派传承工作室。实施民族医药文献整理和适宜技术筛选推广项目,涵盖11个省区,涉及29个民族,并完成了150部重要民族医药文献的整理工作,筛选了140项民族医药特色诊疗技术。截至2013年,全国民族医院达到199所。 Ethnic minority cultures and cultural undertakings in areas inhabited by ethnic minorities prospered. By 2013 China had 32 publishing houses that publish books in the languages of ethnic minorities, and 13 electronic publishers produce audio-visual products in languages of ethnic minorities. In 2013 222 titles of periodicals, 99 types of newspapers and 9,429 book titles were published in languages of ethnic minorities. In 2013 a total of 73 radio stations in ethnic autonomous areas ran 441 programs, including 100 programs broadcast in ethnic languages; and 90 television stations ran 489 programs, including 100 programs broadcast in ethnic languages. There were also 50,834 cultural institutions of various types, including 653 libraries, 784 cultural centers, 8,153 cultural stations and 385 museums. The traditional cultures of minority groups are protected. The state established an experimental area for the protection of the culture and ecology of ethnic minorities living in southeastern Guizhou Province, effectively promoting the overall conservation of the intangible cultural heritage in ethnic minority areas. The state continues to strengthen the protection and development of traditional medicine of ethnic minorities. The state supports experienced elderly experts of ethnic medicine to set up offices to pass on their medical inheritance, and supports the establishment of inheritance offices for different schools of Tibetan, Mongolian, Zhuang and Hui medicines. A program for the categorization of ethnic medicine literature and the selection and promotion of medical techniques has been initiated, covering 29 ethnic groups in 11 provinces and autonomous regions. A total of 150 titles of important ethnic medicine literature has been sorted out and categorized, and 140 medical treatment techniques have been selected for promotion. By 2013 there were 199 hospitals nationwide that specialize in ethnic medicine.
 
  新疆各少数民族享有宗教信仰自由的权利,民族风俗习惯受到充分尊重。根据宪法和民族区域自治法,新疆维吾尔自治区制定了《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教事务管理条例》和《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教活动场所管理暂行规则》、《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教职业人员管理暂行规定》、《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教活动管理暂行规定》等政府规章,保护正常的宗教活动,维护宗教团体和信教公民的合法权益。新疆少数民族信众有权在宗教活动场所内以及自己家里依法举行各种正常的宗教活动,不受任何干涉。新疆现有10个少数民族普遍信仰伊斯兰教,人口1,370多万人,有伊斯兰教清真寺约2.4万座,教职人员2.9万多人。此外,新疆还有佛教信众12万人,场所53个,教职人员326人;基督教信众近6万人,教职人员374人;天主教信众约6,000人,场所20个,教职人员25人;东正教信众约1,000人,场所3个,教职人员2人;道教信众300多人,场所1个。新疆已出版发行了维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、柯尔克孜等文字的《古兰经》、《布哈里圣训实录精华》、《古兰经》注释、《卧尔兹选编》等宗教经典、宗教书籍。国家和自治区各级政府还制定一系列政策、法规,尊重和照顾少数民族饮食、衣饰、年节、婚姻、丧葬等方面的习俗。自治区政府每年对少数民族生活必需的肉食和副食品的生产和供应作出专项安排,保证各民族特需食品的生产和供应,并对10个普遍信仰伊斯兰教的民族予以特别照顾。在新疆,每年的肉孜节和古尔邦节,信仰伊斯兰教的各族人民都可以享受节日假期。 People of ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang enjoy freedom of religious belief, and their customs and social mores are fully respected. In accordance with the Constitution and the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region promulgated the Regulations on the Administration of Religious Affairs of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Interim Regulations on the Administration of Venues for Religious Activities of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Interim Regulations on the Administration of Religious Staff of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Interim Regulations on the Administration of Religious Activities of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and other government regulations, in an effort to protect normal religious activities and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of religious groups and religious believers. The religious believers from ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang are entitled to conducting normal religious activities according to law in venues for such activities and in their homes, rights with which no one may interfere. Currently there are ten minority groups in Xinjiang that mostly believe in Islam, with a total population of around 13.7 million. There are 24,000 mosques with 290,000 staff members. In Xinjiang there are also 120,000 Buddhist believers, with 53 venues for activities and 326 staff members; about 60,000 Protestant followers and 374 clergymen; 6,000 Catholic followers, with 20 venues for activities and 25 priests; 1,000 Orthodox believers with three venues and two priests; and 300 Daoist believers with one venue for activities. Xinjiang has published and distributed the Koran, Sahih al-Bukhari, Tafsir al-Mizan, Selected Texts of Expostulation (a1-Wa 'z) and other religious classics and books in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak and Kirgiz languages. The central government and governments at all levels of Xinjiang have developed a series of policies and regulations to ensure that the customs of ethnic minorities in food and drinks, clothing, festivals, marriages and funerals are respected and given consideration. Each year governments at all levels in Xinjiang make special arrangements for the production and supply of meat, non-staple food and other necessities for the daily life of ethnic minorities ensuring the production and supply of special foods for these ethnic minorities, and lends special consideration to the ten groups dominated by Islamic believers. In Xinjiang, Moslems of all ethnic groups enjoy days off on the occasions of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
 
  西藏文化遗产得到有效保护,宗教和传统风俗习惯得到尊重。西藏现有各类文物点4,277处,布达拉宫、罗布林卡、大昭寺被列入世界文化遗产名录,拉萨、日喀则、江孜被列为国家级历史文化名城,西藏博物馆被列为国家一级博物馆。西藏现有国家级非物质文化遗产名录76个,自治区级323项,市级76项,县级814项。国家级非遗代表性传承人68名,自治区级227名,民间藏戏队117支。其中,格萨尔、藏戏于2009年入选《人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录》。国家积极保护和发展藏民族医药,西藏现有藏医医疗机构19所,在50多所县医院设有藏医科,藏医服务网络基本覆盖全区。国家尊重和保障西藏各族人民按照自己的传统风俗习惯生活和进行社会活动的权利,尊重和保障他们按照自己的意愿进行正常的宗教信奉、祭祀活动以及参加重大的宗教和民间节日活动的自由。西藏现有各类宗教活动场所1,787座,住寺僧尼4.6万余人,活佛358名。寺庙学经、辩经、晋升学位、受戒、灌顶、修行等传统宗教活动正常进行,每逢重大宗教节日都循例举行各种活动。活佛转世作为藏传佛教特有的传承方式得到国家的尊重。民主改革以来,已有60余名新转世活佛按照历史定制与宗教仪轨得到批准认定。信教群众家中普遍设有经堂或佛龛,转经、朝佛、请寺庙僧尼做法事等宗教活动正常进行。西藏自治区及其7个地市均设有佛教协会,中国佛教协会西藏分会办有佛学院、印经院和藏文会刊《西藏佛教》。寺院的壁画、雕刻、塑像、唐卡、经卷、法器、佛龛等宗教文化载体,得到保护和修缮。大量宗教文献典籍得到抢救、整理、出版。各寺庙的传统印经院得到继承和发展,现有木如寺印经院、布达拉宫印经院等大型传统印经院近60家,年印经卷6.3万种,民间经书销售摊点20家。 The cultural legacies of Tibet are effectively protected, and the local religion and traditional customs and social mores are respected. Currently Tibet has 4,277 sites of cultural relics. The Potala Palace, Norbulingka Summer Palace and Jokhang Temple have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List; Lhasa, Shigatse and Gyantse have been entered on the national list of historical and cultural cities; and the Tibet Museum is a first-rank national museum. Seventy-six items on China's national intangible cultural heritage list are located in Tibet, 323 at the autonomous regional level, 76 at the city level and 814 at the county level. There are 68 recognized successors to their own intangible heritages in Tibet at the national level and 227 at the autonomous regional level, and 117 Tibetan Opera troupes. The epic Gesar and Tibetan Opera were included on the list of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009. The state actively protects and develops Tibetan medicine. Currently Tibet has 19 medical institutions that specialize in traditional Tibetan medicine, more than 50 county-level hospitals have a Tibetan medicine department, and the service network of Tibetan medicine has basically covered the whole region. The state respects the customs and social mores of the Tibetan people, and ensures that the ethnic communities of Tibet lead their lives in accordance with their traditional customs and engage in social activities in ways they prefer. The state respects the freedom of religious belief of all the people in Tibet, and ensures that they can practice their religions, conduct ceremonial activities, participate in major religious and folk festivals and engage in other normal activities of their own free will. Currently there are 1,787 venues for religious activities of various types in Tibet, with 46,000 resident monks and nuns, and 358 living Buddhas. Traditional religious activities, such as scripture study and debate, rank promotion, initiation, abhiseca (empowerment) and training, are conducted in an orderly manner, and traditional activities are held at major religious festivals. The living Buddha reincarnation system is a unique practice for the continuation of the living Buddha of Tibetan Buddhism, which is respected by the state. Since the Democratic Reform in Tibet in 1959, over 60 reincarnated living Buddhas have been certified and recognized by the state in accordance with historical conventions and following religious rituals. Many religious believers have sutra halls or small shrines set up in their homes, and they have the liberty to engage in religious activities such as turning prayer wheels, going on pilgrimages, and having monks and nuns perform religious rites. The Tibet Autonomous Region and all of its seven prefectures and cities have Buddhist associations, and the Tibet branch of the China Buddhist Association has a Buddhist academy and a sutra printing house, and publishes Tibetan Buddhism, a journal in the Tibetan language. Religious cultural items, such as murals, sculptures, statues, Thangka paintings, scriptures, ritual items and shrines in Buddhist temples, are protected and renovated when this is needed. Large quantities of religious literature and classics are rescued, sorted out and published. The traditional sutra printing houses of different temples are maintained and developed. Currently there are 60 major sutra printing houses, such as the ones at Muru Nyingba Monastery and the Potala Palace. They print a total of 63,000 titles of scriptures annually, and there are 20 private bookstalls selling scriptures in Tibet.
 
  少数民族享有使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。国家切实保障少数民族语言文字在行政司法、新闻出版、广播影视、文化教育等各领域的合法使用,在普通高等学校招生入学考试中可以使用少数民族语言文字答卷。中央人民广播电台和地方广播电台每天用21种少数民族语言进行播音,边境地区民族语广播电视的覆盖率进一步提高。国家在民族地区推行双语教学。截至2013年,全国共有1万多所学校使用21个民族的29种文字开展双语教学。全国现有民族高等院校15所,在校生约24万人。继续在高校招生中对民族地区给予倾斜,坚持对少数民族学生在高考时适当降分或加分和同等条件优先录取的原则,并对人口较少民族的考生给予一定的特殊照顾。 Ethnic minorities have the right to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. The state takes concrete measures to ensure the legitimate use of ethnic languages in the administrative and judicial sectors, news and publication, radio, film and television, culture and education, and other areas. Ethnic minority students can use their own languages in the college entrance examination. China National Radio and local radio stations broadcast in 21 ethnic languages on a daily basis, and the coverage of radio and television broadcasts in ethnic languages in border areas has further increased. The state promotes bilingual teaching in ethnic areas. By 2013 bilingual teaching was done in the classroom in more than 10,000 schools around the country, and 29 languages of 21 ethnic minority groups were used together with standard Chinese-Putonghua. China has 15 institutions of higher learning for ethnic minority students, with approximately 240,000 students on campus. The state continues the preferential policy toward ethnic minority students in college admissions by lowering the admission scores for or granting extra scores to them, and by granting priority admissions to these students when they are competing with Han students under the same conditions. Special consideration is also given to students from ethnic minority groups with small populations.
 
  藏语文学习使用受到法律保护。西藏自治区各级人民代表大会通过的决议、法规,各级人民政府及所属部门发布的正式文件和公告都使用藏、汉两种文字。在司法诉讼程序中,对藏族诉讼参与人都使用藏语文审理案件,法律文书也使用藏文。各单位的公章、证件、表格、信封、信笺、稿纸、标识以及机关、厂矿、学校、车站、机场、商店、宾馆、餐馆、剧场、旅游景点、体育场馆、图书馆等的标牌和街道、交通路标等,均使用藏、汉两种文字。西藏共有14种藏文杂志、10种藏文报纸。西藏人民广播电台开办有42个藏语(包括康巴语)节目、栏目,藏语新闻综合频率每天播音达21小时,康巴语广播频率每天播音18小时,西藏电视台藏语卫视24小时播出节目。2013年,西藏自治区出版藏文书籍780种,印数达431万册。通过互联网和手机等藏语文平台,浏览阅读、收听、收看国内外新闻和各类资讯,成为众多藏语文用户日常生活的一部分。 The learning and use of the Tibetan language is protected by law. Both the Tibetan language and standard Chinese are used in the decisions and regulations passed at the people's congresses at all levels in the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as in the official documents and public notices issued by people's governments at all levels and their subordinate departments. In judicial litigation the Tibetan language is used during trials when there are Tibetan parties involved, and the legal instruments are written in Tibetan in such cases. Both Tibetan and standard Chinese appear in the official seals, credentials, forms, envelopes, letter paper, writing paper, insignias of different entities, and are used in the signs and plaques of government organs, factories and mines, schools, train stations, airports, stores, hotels, restaurants, theaters, tourism spots, stadiums and libraries, and on street nameplates and road signs. Tibet has 14 journals and ten newspapers published in the Tibetan language. The Tibet People's Radio Station runs 42 programs broadcast in Tibetan (including the Kangba dialect), broadcasting 21 hours of news programs in the Tibetan language and 18 hours of radio programs in the Kangba dialect on a daily basis. The Tibet Television Station Satellite Television broadcasts around the clock in Tibetan. In 2013 the Tibet Autonomous Region published 780 titles of books written in Tibetan, printing a total of 4.31 million copies. For many Tibetan-language users, reading, listening to and watching domestic and international news and getting other information through the Internet, mobile phones and other platforms compatible to the Tibetan language have become part of their daily life.
 
  新疆有13个世居民族,共使用10种语言和文字。自治区及各自治州、自治县机关执行公务时,同时使用自治民族和汉语两种语言文字。新闻、出版、广播、电影、电视等都广泛使用少数民族语言文字。《新疆日报》用维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古四种文字发行。新疆电视台用维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古四种语言播放节目。新疆人民出版社用维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古、柯尔克孜、锡伯六种文字出版各类图书。新疆各出版社出版的图书与音像制品中使用少数民族语文的占到70%以上。2013年译制少数民族语故事片100部,译制影视剧5,975集,拍摄少数民族题材影视剧4部。 In Xinjiang, there are 13 ethnic groups who have lived there for generations, and they use ten different spoken and written languages. During the performance of official business, organs of the autonomous region and the autonomous prefectures and counties use both standard Chinese and the local ethnic languages. The languages of the ethnic minorities are also widely used in the press, publication, radio, film and television. The Xinjiang Daily is published in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak and Mongolian languages; the Xinjiang Television Station broadcasts in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak and Mongolian languages; and the Xinjiang People's Publishing House publishes in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak, Mongolian, Kirgiz and Xibe languages. More than 70 percent of the books and audio-visual products published by publishing houses in Xinjiang are in local ethnic languages. In 2013 subtitles in ethnic languages were added to 100 films and 5,975 episodes of TV series, and four TV dramas were made with ethnic minority themes.
 
 
  七、残疾人权利 VII. Rights of Persons with Disabilities
 
  中国有残疾人约8500万。2013年,中国按照残疾人保障法、《中国残疾人事业“十二五”发展纲要》和《农村残疾人扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》等,依法、有计划地发展残疾人事业。同时,认真履行《残疾人权利公约》,积极落实第三个亚太残疾人十年(2013-2022)“仁川战略”,推动残疾人事业与经济、社会协调发展,残疾人权利保障的规范化水平进一步提升。 China has 85 million disabled people. The Chinese government has developed its programs for disabled people in a planned way in accordance with the Law on the Protection of Disabled Persons, Program for Disabled Persons during the 12th Five-year Plan and the Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Reduction for Disabled Persons in Rural Areas (2011-2020). In the meantime, it also commits itself to the duties defined in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, actively implements the third Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons (2013-2022)-Incheon Strategy, and promotes the coordinated development of disabled people and socioeconomic progress, so that the protection of disabled persons in China has risen to a higher and more standard level.
 
  残疾人康复工作有序开展。按照残疾人“人人享有康复服务”的原则,完善残疾人康复工作机制。推动残疾人康复机构与医疗机构加强合作,构建分工协作、功能互补的三级康复医疗体系。制定《0-6岁儿童残疾筛查工作规范(试行)》,将残疾儿童康复端口前移,建立0-6岁儿童残疾早期筛查、早期诊断、早期治疗、早期康复的工作机制。深化社区康复,推动康复进社区、服务到家庭,重点支持2862个社区康复示范站建设。注重家长学校建设,2013年已开展家长学校工作的残疾人康复机构达1,131个。实施康复人才培养“百千万工程”。2013年全国共培训各级各类管理和专业技术人员25.6万人,其中康复管理人员2.5万人,康复业务人员5.5万人,社区康复协调员17.7万人。 Rehabilitation programs for disabled persons are being carried out in an orderly manner. The Chinese government has improved the work mechanism for disabled persons' rehabilitation, aiming to make sure that every disabled person has access to rehabilitation services. It encourages disability-rehabilitation entities and medical institutions to strengthen their ties so as to establish a three-tier rehabilitation medical system within which the two assume different responsibilities and cooperate closely with mutually complementary abilities. China has enacted the Standards of Screening for Disabilities Among 0-6 Year-old Children (Trial), and, according to which, the rehabilitation of disabled children is moved ahead by establishing an institution of early disability screening, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. At the same time, community rehabilitation is further developed. Rehabilitation services are provided to disabled people inside their communities and homes, with 2,862 community demonstration stations being supported. The role of parent-training schools is emphasized in China. In 2013, 1,131 disability rehabilitation entities conducted the training of the parents of disabled children. The Chinese government launched the "Project of Fostering Hundreds of World Top-notch Rehabilitation Experts, Thousands of Domestic Leading Rehabilitation Specialists and Ten Thousands of Young Rehabilitation Talents," training some 256,000 management and professional personnel at various levels and of various kinds nationwide in 2013, including 25,000 rehabilitation management staff, 55,000 rehabilitation specialists and 177,000 community rehabilitation coordinators.
 
  实施一批重点康复工程。截至2013年,开展社区康复服务的市辖区累计达到901个,县(市)累计达到2,014个。2013年,新增169万残疾人接受社区康复服务,746.8万残疾人得到不同程度康复。其中,完成白内障复明手术74.6万例,为3.2万名聋儿提供听力语言康复训练,为15.3万名智力残疾儿童、脑瘫儿童和孤独症儿童提供机构、社区和家庭指导训练。组织实施贫困肢体残疾儿童矫治手术6,721例,麻风畸残矫治手术418例。584万精神病患者接受综合防治康复服务,46.9万名贫困精神病患者获得医疗救助。为残疾人提供辅助器具128.3万件,其中,国家彩票公益金项目为贫困残疾人免费提供32.9万件。 A series of key rehabilitation projects is being carried out. By 2013 there were 901 city districts and 2,014 counties or county-level cities in China that provided community rehabilitation services. In the same year an additional 1.69 million disabled people enjoyed such services, and 7.468 million disabled people were rehabilitated to various degrees, among whom 746,000 received cataract surgery, 32,000 children with hearing impairments received hearing restoration or language training, and 153,000 children with intellectual disabilities, brain paralysis or autistic disorders received training guidance in rehabilitation institutions and their communities and families. The Chinese government helped 6,721 physically handicapped children from poor families and 418 disabled persons suffering from leprosy to receive surgery, and provided comprehensive rehabilitation services to 5.84 million patients with mental impairments, and provided remedial aid to 469,000 mentally impaired patients in poverty. A total of 1.283 million assistance devices were offered to people with disabilities, among which 329,000 were provided for free by the National Public Welfare Lottery Foundation.
 
  健全残疾人教育保障机制,促进残疾人就业。完善残疾人教育体系,重点解决实名未入学残疾儿童的就学问题,制定《特殊教育提升计划(2014-2016年)》,扩大义务教育普及,因地制宜发展残疾儿童学前教育,加快发展以职业教育为主的残疾人高中阶段教育,推进残疾人高等教育,加大财政投入力度,加强教师队伍建设,深化课程教学改革。继续实施《特殊教育学校建设规划(二期)》,全年投入中央专项资金8亿元,支持27所特殊教育师范院校和残疾人中、高等学校建设。投入中央特教专项补助经费5,500万元,重点支持中西部地区10个省的薄弱特殊教育学校建设。实施残疾人事业专项彩票公益金助学项目,为1万余人次家庭经济困难残疾儿童享受普惠性学前教育提供资助,为全国23所中高等特教院校改善办学条件,并加强残疾学生实训基地建设。全国有7,538名残疾人被普通高等院校录取。制定《关于促进残疾人按比例就业的意见》,加大残疾人职业技能培训和岗位开发力度。全年城镇新增残疾人就业36.9万人,实名培训48万人;农村85.6万残疾人接受实用技术培训。鼓励和扶持福利企业发展,促进残疾人就业和平等融入社会。截至2013年,全国共有福利企业1.8万个,集中安置54.2万名残疾人就业。 The system of safeguarding and promoting disabled persons' access to education and employment is being improved, with the emphasis on the enrolment of disabled children who were registered as having not attended school. China has drawn up the Promotion Plan for Special Education (2014-2016), expanded the coverage of compulsory education, developed preschool education for disabled children in different ways according to different local conditions, accelerated the progress of disabled teenagers' senior high school-level education, centering on vocational education, and improved higher-learning education for disabled people. The Chinese government increased financial input, enhanced the quality and quantity of teachers, and further improved curriculum for disabled people. It continued to implement the Plan for Building Special Schools (Phase II), providing 800 million yuan of specialized funds to support the building of 27 normal colleges for special education and middle and higher-learning schools for disabled people. The central government provided another 55 million yuan of special subsidies to strengthen the special school building in ten central and western provinces. A national special disability lottery program was held, raising funds for 10,000 disabled children from poverty-stricken families to have access to preschool education and for 23 special middle or higher-learning schools to improve their teaching facilities and practical training centers. There were 7,538 disabled students enrolled by ordinary institutions of higher-learning in 2013. The government drew up the Opinions on Promoting the Employment of Disabled Persons in Proportion to Total Employment, increasing the skill training opportunities and job posts for disabled people. Over the year, 369,000 disabled people were employed and 480,000 received training in urban areas; in rural areas 856,000 received training in practical skills. The government encouraged and supported welfare enterprises so as to promote the employment of disabled persons and ensure their equal status in society. By 2013, there were 18,000 welfare enterprises in China, employing a total of 542,000 disabled people.
 
  残疾人社会保障水平进一步提升。扩大残疾人社会福利范围,适当提高社会福利水平。截至2013年,全国已有628万城乡残疾人纳入最低生活保障范围,参加城乡居民养老保险的残疾人分别达到401.4万和1,638.3万,94.4万名残疾人接受托养服务。探索建立贫困残疾人生活补助和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。15个省(区、市)建立了贫困残疾人生活补贴制度,8个省(区、市)建立了重度残疾人护理补贴制度,享受补贴的残疾人超过600万人。 The social security system for disabled persons is being further improved. The Chinese government has enlarged the range of disabled people's social welfare and raised their benefit level. By 2013 over 6.28 million disabled persons in both urban and rural areas received the minimum subsistence allowance, 4.014 million disabled persons in urban areas and 16.383 million in rural areas participated in the respective endowment insurance systems, and 944,000 disabled people were looked after by social services. The governments explored ways to provide poverty-stricken disabled people with living subsidies and severely disabled people with care subsidies. Some 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) established the system of granting living subsidies to poverty-stricken disabled people, and eight provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) established the system of granting care subsidies to severely disabled people, benefiting over 6 million disabled people.
 
  残疾人扶贫开发力度加大。把残疾人的扶贫开发纳入相关规划,在落实扶贫政策和实施扶贫措施中同等条件下优先支持残疾人,加大支持力度。将贫困残疾人纳入贫困监测整体工作,建立集中连片特困地区残疾人扶贫开发工作统计汇总制度。加强农业行业助残扶贫工作,促进农村残疾人增收。对残疾人农业生产技术服务、创办农民专业合作社给予支持,加强农村残疾人农业生产与经营管理技能的培训,支持农村残疾人家庭购置和使用农机,加快改善农村残疾人家庭生活燃气环境,提高优惠补贴。优先支持农村贫困残疾人家庭危房改造,完成贫困残疾人家庭危房改造数量占年度总任务的比例,高于农村贫困残疾人家庭存量危房占存量危房总数的比例。实施《2013年贫困地区新生儿疾病筛查项目方案》,在21个省(区、市)14个国家集中连片特殊困难地区的200个县,对农村户籍的49万例新生儿开展苯丙酮尿症、先天性甲状腺功能减低症和听力障碍患儿筛查工作,并实施康复救助。2013年,农村共有120.6万残疾人脱贫,为12.2万户农村残疾人家庭实施了危房改造。 The development-oriented poverty alleviation for disabled persons is being strengthened. The Chinese government included poverty alleviation and development of disabled persons in relevant programs, and made disabled people a priority when carrying out poverty alleviation policies and measures. Poverty-stricken disabled people were included in the overall poverty monitoring, and a statistics system for development-oriented poverty alleviation for disabled people in contiguous poverty-stricken areas was set up. The assistance to and poverty alleviation for disabled people in agricultural sector was strengthened in a bid to increase their incomes. Local governments also supported disabled people by providing agricultural technology services or helping them found special cooperatives, strengthened the skill training in agricultural production and business management for disabled people in rural areas, assisted rural families with one or more disabled members to buy and use agricultural machines, and accelerated the improvement of conditions for the supply of gas to them for daily use by giving preferences and increasing subsidies. The renovation of dilapidated houses of poor families with one or more disabled members was given high priority, and the proportion of renovated houses of poor families with one or more disabled members in the total of renovated houses in the year was higher than the proportion of existing dilapidated houses of poor families with one or more disabled members in all dilapidated houses. According to the Project Plan for Screening Illnesses Among Newborn Babies in Poverty-stricken Areas in 2013, local governments conducted screening for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and hearing loss among 490,000 newborn babies in rural areas, and provided the sick babies with rehabilitation aids in 14 national contiguous poverty-stricken areas involving 200 counties in 21 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government). In 2013 some 1.206 million disabled people in rural areas got rid of poverty and 122,000 rural families with one or more disabled members renovated their houses.
 
  加快推进无障碍建设与改造。贯彻实施《无障碍环境建设条例》,城乡无障碍环境建设深入开展。2013年,共为13.6万户贫困残疾人家庭进行无障碍改造,为65.7万残疾人发放了残疾人机动轮椅车燃油补贴。落实方便残疾人出行规定,中国民航局研究修订《残疾人航空运输办法(试行)》,中国铁路总公司在所有列车均设置残疾人专座。全年安排4.8万张残疾人火车专票,改造生产1268节无障碍车厢。各市、县全面开展无障碍环境建设。按照《网站设计无障碍技术要求》,对117家部委和省政府等网站开展无障碍专项评估,部分网站已按照标准开展了网站无障碍建设。推进信息无障碍辅助器具研发,开展盲用辅助系统、读屏软件等无障碍相关标准的研究制定。启动“美丽中国——2013中国政务信息无障碍公益行动”,对政府各部门政务网站进行无障碍改造,开展城市信息无障碍体系建设。 Access for disabled people is being improved. China has enacted the Regulations for Building a Barrier-free Environment, making efforts to remove environmental barriers in both urban and rural areas. In 2013 the Chinese government helped improve access for 136,000 families with one or more disabled members, and granted 657,000 disabled people fuel subsidies for motorized wheelchairs. In order to make disabled people's travelling more convenient, the China Civil Aviation Administration amended the Regulations of Air Transport for Disabled Persons (Trial), and the China Railway Corporation arranged special seats for disabled persons in every train, providing 48,000 special tickets for disabled persons and making 1,268 carriages barrier-free. Various cities and counties started to build a barrier-free environment. Some of the websites of 117 ministries and commissions as well as provincial governments claimed that they had become barrier-free in accordance with the Technical Norms for Designing Barrier-free Accessible Websites. China accelerated the R&D for assistance devices and began researching and laying down technical criteria for devices for the blind and screen readers. The Chinese government launched the "2013 Beautiful China Actions for Barrier-free Access to Government Information," improving the websites of various government departments, and began to build a barrier-free information system in the cities.
 
 
  八、环境权利 VIII. Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment
 
  2013年,中国针对高速发展带来的环境和生态问题,继续大力推进生态文明建设,不断建立健全环境保护制度体系,增强环境治理和生态保护力度,以解决损害群众健康的突出环境问题为重点,严肃查处惩戒污染环境的违法和犯罪行为,保障人民享有良好环境的权利。 Aiming to solve the environmental and ecological problems caused by the country's rapid economic growth, the Chinese government continued to promote ecological progress in 2013, constantly improving environmental protection systems and enhancing environmental management and ecosystem preservation. Focusing on solving the major environmental problems that seriously endanger people's health, it investigated and punished harshly illegal pollution and environmental crimes, so as to safeguard people's right to a healthy and clean environment.
 
  生态环境保护的规划和机制进一步完善。国家制定和实施《化学品环境风险防控“十二五”规划》、《大气污染防治行动计划》、《京津冀及周边地区落实大气污染防治行动计划实施细则》、《京津冀及周边地区重污染天气监测预警方案》、《华北平原地下水污染防治工作方案》、《关于加强国家重点生态功能区环境保护和管理的意见》、《实行最严格水资源管理制度考核办法》、《关于加快推进水生态文明建设工作的意见》等一系列环境保护文件。发布国家环保标准135项,使现行有效国家环保标准达1,499项。 The planning and mechanisms for protecting the environment and ecosystems is being furthered improved. China formulated and implemented a series of policy documents and plans for environmental protection, including the Prevention and Control of Environmental Risks of Chemical Products, during the 12th Five-year Plan Period (2011-2015), Action Plan for Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution, Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Action Plan for Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the Surrounding Areas, Plan for Monitoring and Early-warning of Heavily Polluted Weather in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the Surrounding Areas, Work Plan for Preventing and Controlling Groundwater Pollution in the North China Plain, Opinions on Strengthening Environmental Protection and Management in Key National Ecological Function Zones, Methods for Assessing the Implementation of the Strictest Management System of Water Resources and Opinions on Accelerating Progress in Water Ecological Systems. With 135 newly issued items in 2013, China had a total of 1,499 items of national criteria for environmental protection currently in effect.
 
  国家环境保护部与31个省(区、市)签订了大气污染防治目标责任书。推进环保重点城市和环保模范城市PM2.5监测点建设。2013年完成西部大开发战略环境影响评估,启动中部地区发展战略环境影响评估。对重点控制区火电、钢铁、石化、水泥、有色、化工等六大行业以及燃煤锅炉项目执行大气污染物特别排放限值。环保部、保监会联合制定了《关于开展环境污染强制责任保险试点工作的指导意见》,规定涉重金属企业、按地方有关规定已被纳入投保范围的企业、其他高环境风险企业3类企业必须强制投保社会环境污染强制责任险。启动第二批10个省(区)环境功能区划编制试点,在内蒙古、江西、广西和湖北4省(区)开展生态红线划定技术试点。建立全国大气污染防治部际协调机制、长三角区域和京津冀及周边地区大气污染防治协作机制。水资源管理责任与考核制度进一步推进和落实。建立最严格水资源管理制度考核组,31个省(区、市)建立行政首长负责制,“三条红线”考核指标分解工作基本完成。启动《水资源保护规划》编制,完成重要江河湖泊水功能区纳污能力核定,提出了分阶段限排方案。 The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China has signed target responsibility agreements for preventing and combating air pollution with 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government). The Chinese government has promoted the building of PM2.5 monitoring stations in key and model cities for environmental protection. It completed the assessment of environmental impacts of the western China development strategy in 2013, and launched the assessment of environmental impacts of the central China development strategies. Limitations on air pollutants were imposed for the thermal power, steel, petrochemical, cement, non-ferrous metal and chemical engineering industries as well as coal-fired boiler projects in key control areas. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and China Insurance Regulatory Commission jointly developed the Guidelines for the Pilot Projects of Compulsory Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance, stipulating that enterprises connected with heavy metals, enterprises that had been insured according to local regulations and other high-environmental-risk enterprises must take out environmental pollution liability insurance. The second stage of experiments in environmental function zoning was launched in ten provinces (autonomous regions), and the experiment for ecological red-line demarcation technology was launched in Inner Mongolia, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Hubei. The state set up an inter-ministry coordination mechanism for preventing and controlling air pollution and a cooperative mechanism for preventing and controlling air pollution in Yangtze River Delta areas and Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the surrounding areas. The liability and assessment system for water resources management was put into effect. Inspection teams for the implementation of the strictest management system of water resources was set up in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government), with the local government head assuming responsibility. The targets of the "three red lines" (for water resources exploitation, water efficiency and pollution in water-related zones) were further divided and assigned. China began devising the Plan of Water Resources Protection, finished the measurement of assimilative capacities of major rivers and lakes, and proposed a phased schedule for emission limitations.
 
  生态环境保护投入进一步加大。2013年全国财政节能环保投入3,383亿元,同比增长14.2%。制定实施《国家环境监管能力建设“十二五”规划》。开展水质较好湖泊生态环境保护试点,中央投入资金16亿元。国务院审议通过了《水质较好湖泊生态环境保护总体规划(2013年-2020年)》。国家重点生态功能区转移支付资金达423亿元,范围扩大到492个县。中央财政投入25亿元用于重金属污染治理,首批投入50亿元大气污染防治专项资金支持北京、天津、河北、山西、山东、内蒙古等六省(区、市)治理大气污染,投入60亿元专项资金支持农村环境综合整治。 Funds used for environmental protection is being increased. The Chinese government provided some 338.3 billion yuan in 2013 for conserving energy and protecting the environment, seeing a 14.2 percent year-on-year growth. The Plan of Capability Development in Environmental Monitoring during the 12th Five-year Plan Period was drawn up and implemented. The central government put 1.6 billion yuan into a pilot project for protecting the environment and ecosystems of lakes with good water quality. The State Council reviewed and passed the Overall Plan for Protecting the Environment and Ecosystems of Lakes with Good Water Quality (2013-2020). The transfer payment for key ecological function zones reached 42.3 billion yuan, covering 492 counties. The central government also spent 2.5 billion yuan on combating heavy metal pollution, the first portion of five billion yuan used to support air pollution control in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong and Inner Mongolia, and six billion yuan used to improve the comprehensive environment in rural areas.
 
  环境保护措施进一步加强。2013年,全国新建国家级自然保护区21处,已有海南、黑龙江、安徽等16个省(区)开展生态省(区)建设,1,000多个市(县)开展生态市(县)建设,建成国家级生态市(县)55个、国家级生态乡镇2,986个。在全国46个城市(区)启动水生态文明城市建设。全国城市园林绿地面积达到2,367,842公顷,绿化覆盖率达39.59%,人均公园绿地面积达12.26平方米。在第一批74个城市496个监测点位实时发布细颗粒物(PM2.5)等六项污染物监测数据的同时,完成第二批116个城市开展细颗粒物(PM2.5)等污染物监测点位的建设任务,并开始实时发布监测数据。深化重点流域水污染防治。加强流域水资源保护,启动国家水资源监控能力建设项目,建设取用水户、水功能区、省界断面共1.4万个国控监测点,对全国175个重要饮用水水源地实现在线监测,使全国70%以上的许可取用水量、80%以上的重要水功能区、重要省际河流省界断面水质情况得到有效监测。制定《水功能区管理办法》,强化分级分类监管。七大水系的577个水质监测断面中,Ⅰ-Ⅲ类水质断面占66.7%,劣Ⅴ类占10.8%,分别比2012年上升2.6个百分点,下降1.5个百分点。 Environmental protection measures are being furthered enhanced. In 2013 China set up 21 national nature reserves. Some 16 provinces (autonomous regions), including Hainan, Heilongjiang and Anhui, launched the Ecosystem-friendly Province (autonomous region) Project and over 1,000 cities (counties) launched the Ecosystem-friendly City (county) Project, with a total of 55 national-level ecosystem-friendly cities (counties) and 2,986 national-level ecosystem-friendly townships being set up. In addition, 46 cities (districts) launched the Water Ecosystem-friendly City Project. China's urban green areas reached 2,367,842 ha, covering 39.59 percent of the total urban land, with the per capita green area in public parks being 12.26 sq m. When 496 monitoring stations in 74 cities gave real-time updates of monitoring data of six pollutants, including fine particles (PM2.5 particles), a second batch of 116 cities were also building pollutant-monitoring stations and began providing real-time updates. The state deepened the prevention and control of water pollution in key basin areas. In order to strengthen water resources protection in basin areas, it launched the projects to enhance water resources monitoring capacity, established 14,000 national monitoring stations in water-consuming units, water function zones and provincial borders, and achieved online water-quality monitoring in 175 key drinking water source areas, so as to put water quality of over 70 percent of water volumes used with permission, 80 percent of key water function zones and all major inter-provincial and boundary rivers under surveillance. The state formulated the Management Measures of Water Function Zones, enhancing classified and categorized supervision and management. Among 577 water-quality monitoring sections in China's seven major river systems, 66.7 percent of water sections were graded in categories I-III, and 10.8 percent were graded as inferior category V, an increase of 2.6 percentage points and a decrease of 1.5 percentage points, respectively, compared with 2012.
 
  以大气污染防治为重点,大力推进工程减排。2013年以来,中国中东部地区多次出现大范围雾霾天气,引起全社会广泛关注。2013年9月,国务院发布《大气污染防治行动计划》,提出减少污染物排放、推进产业结构优化升级、加快企业技术改造、调整能源结构、严格节能环保准入等35项具体措施,建立区域污染联防联控机制,妥善应对重污染天气,动员全社会力量参与大气保护行动,大力开展大气污染防治工作,治理雾霾。2013年,全国3400万千瓦现役火电机组脱硫设施实施增容改造,燃煤电厂脱硫机组比例超过90%;新增脱硝机组2.05亿千瓦,脱硝机组比例占全国火电总装机容量的50%;2.03亿千瓦现役火电机组拆除脱硫设施的烟气旁路,无烟气旁路运行的脱硫机组占全国火电总装机容量的46%;5.7亿吨水泥熟料产能新建脱硝设施,已实施脱硝的水泥熟料产能占全国总产能的50%。2013年,化学需氧量、氨氮、二氧化硫、氮氧化物四项主要污染物分别同比下降2.93%、3.14%、3.48%、4.72%,其中氮氧化物排放量首次降至2010年减排基数以下。2013年全国新增城镇(含建制镇、工业园区)污水日处理能力1,194万吨,全国设市城市生活垃圾无害化处理率达到84.8%。 Aiming to prevent and control air pollution, projects of emission-reduction by means of updating facilities are being greatly boosted. The large-scale smog in China's central and eastern areas since 2013 has caused great concern of the public. The State Council issued the Action Plan for Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution in September 2013, imposing 35 concrete measures, including reducing the emission of air contaminants, upgrading the industrial structure, speeding up enterprises' technical transformation, optimizing the energy mix, and applying strict criteria for energy conservation and environmental protection. China established a joint prevention and control system for regional pollution, promptly reacted to severe pollution days, mobilized the whole of society to participate in the actions of maintaining clean air, promoted air pollution control and reduced smog. In 2013 the desulfurization facilities of the active thermal power generating units with a capacity of 34 million kw were retrofitted to increase capacity, and the ratio of generating units with desulfurization facilities came to account for 90 percent of all generating units in China's coal-fired thermal power stations. A capacity of 205 million kw were retrofitted with generating units with NOx reduction facilities in the year, reaching 50 percent of China's total thermal installed capacity. The gas bypass of desulfurization facilities of thermal power generating units with a capacity of 203 million kw was cancelled, with the capacity of desulfurization generating units without gas bypasses accounting for 46 percent of the total thermal power installed capacity. Cement clinker plants with a capacity of 570 million tons were retrofitted with NOx reduction facilities, accounting for 50 percent of the total capacity. The emissions of four major pollutants-organic pollutants (measured by chemical oxygen demand), ammonia nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and NOx-decreased by 2.93 percent, 3.14 percent, 3.48 percent and 4.72 percent, respectively, compared with 2012, with the emission of NOx dropping below the 2010 reduction benchmark for the first time. The daily sewage treatment capacity in towns (including both incorporated towns and industrial parks) increased by 11.94 million tons in 2013, and 84.8 percent of the garbage in cities at all levels was made harmless after treatment.
 
  开展环保专项检查,打击环境污染犯罪。2013年,全国共出动执法人员183万余人(次),检查企业71万余家(次),查处环境违法问题6,499件,挂牌督办1,523件。对2012年度重金属规划实施情况考核不合格省份16个地市实行环评限批。新处置铬渣30余万吨,基本实现铬渣当年产生当年利用处置完毕。阻止17批次固体废物非法入境。2013年1月1日实施的修订后的民事诉讼法确立了环境公益诉讼制度,明确规定对环境污染、侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,法律规定的机关和有关组织可以向人民法院提起诉讼。2013年6月,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院发布《关于办理环境污染刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》,从严打击环境污染犯罪,并对环境监管部门的“监管失职罪”规定了追加处罚措施。2013年,全国公安机关共立案侦查环境污染案件779起,抓获犯罪嫌疑人1,265名。全国各级检察院起诉重大环境污染事故、非法采矿、盗伐滥伐林木等犯罪嫌疑人20,969人,在环境监管、污染治理、生态修复工程建设等领域查办职务犯罪1,290人,并通过督促起诉、检察建议等方式推动相关部门依法履行对环境资源的监管职责。全国各级人民法院共受理环境污染犯罪案件134件,审结104件,依法追究刑事责任139人。最高人民法院还通报了紫金矿业集团紫金山金铜矿重大环境污染事故案、云南阳宗海重大环境污染事故案、重庆云光化工有限公司污染环境案以及胡文标、丁月生投放危险物质污染环境犯罪等典型案件。 Specialized environmental-protection inspections are being conducted, and environmental crimes are being cracked down on. Some 1.83 million law-enforcement personnel were sent to inspect 710,000 enterprises in 2013, investigating and dealing with 6,499 cases of environmental violation and illegal activities, and handling 1,523 cases within a set time limit under the supervision of higher authorities. The central government paused project environmental approvals of 16 cities in the provinces that had failed the 2012 examination of the implementation of the Plan for Preventing and Controlling of Heavy Metal Pollution during the 12th Five-year Plan Period. More than 300,000 tons of chromium slag was treated in the year, almost equal the total discharged volume, and 17 batches of solid waste were prevented from illegal entry. The revised Civil Procedure Law, which went into force January 1, 2013, established the environment-related public interest litigation system, stipulating that law-designated governmental organs and organizations can legally challenge activities that damage the public interest, such as those polluting the environment and those infringing consumers' lawful rights and interests. According to the Interpretation of Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases of Environmental Pollution jointly issued by the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate in June 2013, environmental crimes will be harshly punished, and the environmental regulatory authorities' misprisions in environmental monitoring will be liable to extra punishment. In 2013 public security organs all over China filed 779 environmental cases and roped in 1,265 criminal suspects; people's procuratorates at all levels charged 20,969 suspects with major contamination accidents, illegally mining or illegally felling trees, investigated 1,290 officials for work-related crimes in projects concerning environmental monitoring, pollution control and ecosystems restoration, and required related government departments to fulfil their statutory duty of supervision according to law by means of prosecutorial advice and urging them to bring to light illegal conduct; people's courts at all levels accepted and heard 134 environmental cases, with 104 concluded, and applied criminal sanctions to 139 persons. Moreover, the Supreme People's Court announced such typical cases of environmental-pollution crimes as the Zijin Mining Group's pollution spill at the Zijinshan Gold and Copper Mine, pollution accidents of Chengjiang Jinye Industry and Trade Co., Ltd. in Yunnan, a pollution accident of Yunguang Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. in Chongqing, and the dumping of hazardous substances by Hu Wenbiao and Ding Yuesheng.
 
 
  九、人权领域的对外交流与合作 IX. Foreign Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights
 
  2013年,中国积极开展国际人权交流与合作,在联合国人权机构中发挥建设性作用,推动国际人权事业健康发展。 In 2013 China continued to take the initiative in exchanges and cooperation with other countries in the realm of human rights. It played a constructive role in the UN's human rights bodies and endeavored to promote the sound development of human rights on the international stage.
 
  积极参与联合国多边人权会议。中国代表团出席了联合国第68届联大第三委员会、非政府组织委员会相关会议,参加了人权理事会第22至24次会议,人权理事会国别人权审查工作组第15至17次会议,在相关会议中,中国发挥建设性作用,积极表达人权政策主张,参与有关人权议题的审议和讨论。 Participating in UN multilateral human rights conferences. Chinese delegations attended the relevant meetings of the Third Committee of the 68th Session of the UN General Assembly and the Committee on Non-governmental Organizations, and the 22nd to 24th sessions of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC), and participated in the 15th to 17th sessions of the HRC's Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Team. In those meetings, China played a constructive role by stating its views on human rights policies and proactively participating in reviews and discussions of human rights issues.
 
  通过第二轮国别人权审查。2013年10月,中国在日内瓦顺利通过联合国人权理事会第二轮国别人权审查。137国在会上发言,大多数国家充分肯定中国人权事业成就,支持中国根据本国国情进一步促进和保护人权。对各国在审议过程中提出的意见和建议,中国本着开放、认真的态度给予积极回应,接受建议204条,占建议总数的81%,涉及减贫、教育、司法等20多个领域。2014年3月20日,中国接受第二轮国别人权审查报告获得联合国人权理事会核可。 Passing the UPR second cycle. China passed its second UPR in October 2013 at Geneva. Representatives of the most of the 137 states participating the review fully acknowledged China's achievements and progress in human rights, supporting China in further promoting and protecting human rights based on its actual conditions. With an open mind and in a serious manner, the Chinese government positively responded to the suggestions and opinions raised by other countries' representatives during the review, accepting 204 opinions (81 percent of all the opinions) concerning over 20 fields, including poverty reduction, education and the judiciary. The review report of China's second UPR was adopted by the HRC March 20, 2014.
 
  高度重视国际人权条约履约工作。中国已加入包括《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》在内的26项国际人权公约。2013年,中国向联合国禁止酷刑委员会提交了履行《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第六次履约报告。中国执行《儿童权利公约》第三、四次合并报告和执行《〈儿童权利公约〉关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书》首次报告顺利通过联合国儿童权利委员会审议。 Attaching great importance to the implementation of international human rights conventions. China has joined 26 international human rights conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In 2013 China submitted to the Committee Against Torture (CAT) the sixth report of its implementation of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. China's consolidated report of the third and fourth implementations of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and first report of implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict passed the review of the Committee on the Rights of the Child without a hitch.
 
  积极参与联合国人权机制工作。2013年11月12日,中国以176票高票当选2014至2016年联合国人权理事会成员国。继续支持联合国人权事务高级专员办公室工作,承诺2014年至2017年中国对联合国人权高专办的捐款将提升至80万美元。接待联合国人权理事会“法律和实践中对妇女的歧视问题工作组”访华。积极参与和推动联大加强和增进人权条约机构体系有效运作政府间进程,参与数轮多边非正式磋商和专题讨论,就改善人权条约机构体系阐述中国立场和主张。中国的人权专家还分别当选联合国人权理事会咨询委员会和联合国禁止酷刑委员会委员。 Taking an active part in UN activities concerning human rights. On November 12, 2013, China was elected with 176 votes an HRC member state for 2014-2016. China continued to support the work of the UN's Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), promising to raise its donations to the OHCHR to US$800,000 each year from 2014 to 2017. It received a visit from the HRC's working group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice. The Chinese government actively participated in and promoted the intergovernmental process of the UN General Assembly on strengthening and enhancing the effective functioning of the human rights treaty body system, and attended several rounds of multilateral unofficial negotiations and seminars to set forth its position and assertions on improving the human rights treaty body system. Chinese experts were elected as members of the HRC Advisory Committee and CAT.
 
  通过人权对话与交流增进了解。中国与俄罗斯、巴基斯坦进行了人权交流与磋商,开展了中美、中欧、中德等人权对话。与美国举行中美法律专家交流,与澳大利亚开展人权技术合作,接待欧盟人权事务特别代表访华。派团出席了第13届亚欧非正式人权研讨会。中国人权研究会和中国人权发展基金会联合主办了第六届“北京人权论坛”,论坛以“建设可持续的人权发展环境”为主题,围绕“法治与人权”、“社会建设与人权”、“区域安全与人权”等进行了广泛深入的讨论。 Increasing mutual understanding through dialogues and communication on human rights. China held human rights communication and discussions with Russia and Pakistan, and human rights dialogues with the United States, the European Union, Germany and other countries. It sent legal experts to hold dialogues with their US counterparts, conducted technical cooperation projects on human rights with Australia and received a visit from the European Union's Special Representative for Human Rights. It also sent a delegation to attend the 13th Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Informal Seminar on Human Rights. The China Society for Human Rights Studies and the China Foundation for Human Rights Development jointly held the sixth session of the Beijing Forum on Human Rights. Focusing on "Constructing an Environment for Sustainable Human Rights Development," the forum discussed in a broad and profound way the relationship between human rights and the rule of law, social progress and regional security.
 
  中国将一如既往地与国际社会一道,为促进国际人权事业的健康发展做出不懈努力。 Working closely with other countries, China will continue to spare no efforts to promote the healthy development of human rights worldwide.