第二次全国湿地资源调查结果

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第二次全国湿地资源调查结果
Outcomes of the Second National Wetland Resources Survey
(2014年1月13日)
13 January 2014
国家林业局
State Forestry Administration

  一、基本情况
  I. Background

  为满足我国湿地保护管理需要,更好地履行《湿地公约》,2003年我国完成了首次全国湿地资源调查,初步掌握了单块面积100公顷以上湿地的基本情况。十年来,随着经济社会发展,我国湿地生态状况发生了显著变化,为准确掌握湿地资源及其生态变化情况,制订加强湿地保护管理政策,编制重大生态修复规划,国家林业局于2009-2013年组织完成了第二次全国湿地资源调查。
  China completed the first National Wetland Resources Survey in 2003 to meet the needs of wetland conservation and administration and better implement the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in China. This survey helped us get the basic information of wetlands larger than 100 hectares. In the past decade, economic and social development has brought notable changes to China’s wetland ecology. The State Forestry Administration conducted the second National Wetland Resources Survey between 2009 and 2013 in order to get accurate information on China’s wetland resources and their ecological changes, to make and improve conservation and administration policies, and to develop major ecological rehabilitation plans.

  按照《湿地公约》,第二次调查确定起调面积为8公顷(含8公顷)以上的近海与海岸湿地、湖泊湿地、沼泽湿地、人工湿地以及宽度10米以上、长度5公里以上的河流湿地,开展了湿地类型、面积、分布、植被和保护状况调查,对国际重要湿地、国家重要湿地、自然保护区、自然保护小区和湿地公园内的湿地,以及其他特有、分布有濒危物种和红树林等具有特殊保护价值的湿地开展了重点调查,主要包括生物多样性、生态状况、利用和受威胁状况等。
  According to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the second national survey decided to investigate acreages, types, distribution, plantation, and conservation status of all wetlands no smaller than eight hectares as well as river wetlands wider than ten meters and longer than five kilometers. We also carried out key surveys on bio-diversity, ecology, utilization and the levels of threat they face on wetlands of international importance, wetlands of national importance, natural reserves, small natural reserves, wetlands in wetland parks, and other wetlands with special conservation value that are endemic, inhabited by endangered species or by mangrove forests.

  参与本次调查的省级及以上单位203个、技术人员2.2万人,调查采用3S技术(即遥感技术RS、地理信息系统GIS和全球定位系统GPS的简称)与现地核查相结合的方法。全国共区划湿地斑块27.62万块,区划湿地区3391个,重点调查湿地1579处,布设植物调查样方72227个,动物调查样带和样方14044个,获取调查成果数据2.6亿条。
  203 national and provincial institutions as well as more than 22,000 technical people participated in this survey. The survey combined 3S technologies (namely remote-sensing, geographical information system and global positioning system) and field surveys. The survey partitioned 276,200 wetland patches, 3,391 wetland areas, and 1,579 key wetlands. The survey also set up 72,227 plots for surveying plants and 14,044 belt transects and plots for surveying animals. The survey got 260 million pieces of data.

  二、调查结果
  II. Outcomes

  调查主要成果:一是掌握了调查范围内符合公约标准的各类湿地面积、分布和保护状况,建立了遥感影像和基础数据库。二是掌握了国际重要湿地、国家重要湿地、自然保护区、湿地公园和其他重要湿地的生态、野生动植物、保护与利用、社会经济及受威胁状况等。三是掌握了近十年来100公顷以上湿地面积、保护状况和受威胁状况的动态变化情况。四是建立了稳定的湿地资源调查专业队伍和专家团队。五是形成了完善的湿地资源调查监测系列技术规范。
  The survey has the following major outcomes. First, it got the acreage, distribution and conservation status of all wetlands within the survey scope in line with the standards of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Second, it got the information on the ecology, wide animal and plant resources, conservation and utilization, social and economic development and threatened status of wetlands of international importance, wetlands of national importance, natural reserves, wetland parks, and other important wetlands. Third, it got information on the dynamic changes of the acreage, conservation status and threatened status of wetlands larger than 100 hectares in the past decade. Fourth, it set up a regular professional wetland resources survey team and expert group. Fifth, it developed a complete series of technical regulation on wetland resource surveys.

  全国湿地总面积5360.26万公顷(另有水稻田面积3005.70万公顷未计入),湿地率5.58%。其中,调查范围内湿地面积5342.06万公顷,收集的香港、澳门和台湾湿地面积18.20万公顷[1]。自然湿地面积4667.47万公顷,占87.37%;人工湿地面积674.59万公顷,占12.63%。自然湿地中,近海与海岸湿地面积579.59万公顷,占12.42%;河流湿地面积1055.21万公顷,占22.61%;湖泊湿地面积859.38万公顷,占18.41%;沼泽湿地面积2173.29万公顷,占46.56%。
  China’s total acreage of wetlands stands at 53.6026 million hectares and its wetland ratio at 5.58%. Among them, the total acreage of wetlands within the survey scope stands at 53.4206 million hectares, the acreage of wetlands in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan stands at 182,000 hectares according to information we collect.In addition, according to China Statistical Yearbook 2011, China’s rice paddies stands at 30.057 million hectares. The acreage of natural wetlands is 46.6747 million hectares, accounting for 87.37%; the acreage of artificial wetlands stand at 6.7459 million hectares, accounting for 12.64%. In natural wetlands, the acreage of coastal wetlands stands at 5.7959 million hectares, accounting for 12.42%; the acreage of river wetlands stands at 10.5521 million hectares, accounting for 22.61%; the acreage of river wetlands stands at 8.5938 million hectares, accounting for 18.41%, and the acreage of marshes stands at 21.7329 million hectares, accounting for 46.56%.

  按照全国水资源区划一级区统计,各流域湿地分布分别为:西北诸河区湿地面积1652.78万公顷,西南诸河区湿地面积210.81万公顷,松花江区湿地面积928.07万公顷,辽河区湿地面积192.20万公顷,淮河区湿地面积367.63万公顷,黄河区湿地面积392.92万公顷,东南诸河区湿地面积185.88万公顷,珠江区湿地面积300.82万公顷,长江区湿地面积945.68万公顷,海河区湿地面积165.27万公顷。
  According to first-order river basin in The National Master Plan of Water Resources, the acreages of wetlands in first-order rivers basins are as follows: the northwest rivers basin has 16.5278 million hectares of wetlands, the southwest rivers basin has 2.1081 million hectares of wetlands, the Songhua River basin has 9.2807 million hectares of wetlands, the Liaohe River basin has 1.922 million hectares of wetlands, the Huaihe River basin has 3.6763 million hectares of wetlands, the Yellow River basin has 3.9292 million hectares of wetlands, the southeast rivers basin has 1.8588 million hectares of wetlands, the Pearl River basin has 3.0082 million hectares of wetlands, the Yangtze River basin has 9.4568 million hectares of wetlands, and the Haihe River basin has 1.6527 million hectares of wetlands.

  按照31个省区市统计,湿地分布分别为:
  By province, the distribution of wetlands is as follows:
  
表 全国各省(区、市)湿地面积  单位:万公顷
 

序号 省(区、市) 湿地面积 序号 省(区、市) 湿地面积
1 北京市 4.81 17 湖北省 144.50
2 天津市 29.56 18 湖南省 101.97
3 河北省 94.19 19 广东省 175.34
4 山西省 15.19 20 广西壮族自治区 75.43
5 内蒙古自治区 601.06 21 海南省 32.00
6 辽宁省 139.48 22 重庆市 20.72
7 吉林省 99.76 23 四川省 174.78
8 黑龙江省 514.33 24 贵州省 20.97
9 上海市 46.46 25 云南省 56.35
10 江苏省 282.28 26 西藏自治区 652.90
11 浙江省 111.01 27 陕西省 30.85
12 安徽省 104.18 28 甘肃省 169.39
13 福建省 87.10 29 青海省 814.36
14 江西省 91.01 30 宁夏回族自治区 20.72
15 山东省 173.75 31 新疆维吾尔自治区 394.82
16 河南省 62.79 合计 5342.06

Table Acreages of Wetlands in All Provinces, Autonomous Regions and Municipalities Unit: 10,000 hectares
No. Province(Autonomous Region or Municipality) Acreage No. Province(Autonomous Region or Municipality) Acreage
1 Beijing 4.81 17 Hubei 144.50
2 Tianjin 29.56 18 Hunan 101.97
3 Hebei 94.19 19 Guangdong 175.34
4 Shanxi 15.19 20 Guangxi 75.43
5 Inner Mongolia 601.06 21 Hainan 32.00
6 Liaoning 139.48 22 Chongqing 20.72
7 Jilin 99.76 23 Sichuan 174.78
8 Heilongjiang 514.33 24 Guizhou 20.97
9 Shanghai 46.46 25 Yunnan 56.35
10 Jiangsu 282.28 26 Tibet 652.90
11 Zhejiang 111.01 27 Shaanxi 30.85
12 Anhui 104.18 28 Gansu 169.39
13 Fujian 87.10 29 Qinghai 814.36
14 Jiangxi 91.01 30 Ningxia 20.72
15 Shandong 173.75 31 Xinjiang 394.82
16 Henan 62.79 Total 5342.06

  调查结果显示,我国已初步建立了以湿地自然保护区为主体,湿地公园和自然保护小区并存,其他保护形式为补充的湿地保护体系。纳入保护体系的湿地面积2324.32万公顷,湿地保护率43.51%。其中,自然湿地保护面积2115.68万公顷,自然湿地保护率45.33%。
  The second national survey shows that China has initially put in place a wetland conservation system including, first and foremost, wetland natural reserves, wetland parks, small natural reserves, and other conservation areas. The survey shows that the acreage of wetlands under the wetland conservation system stands at 23.2432 million hectares, accounting for 43.51% of total wetlands. Among them, the acreage of natural wetlands under protection stands at 21.1568 million hectares, accounting for 45.33% of total natural wetlands in China.

  两次调查间隔十年间,中国湿地资源呈现三个主要变化:
  In the past decade between the two national surveys, China’s wetland resources have three major changes:

  一是同口径下湿地面积减少。我们对两次调查类型相同、范围相同和起调面积相同的湿地进行对比,近十年来我国湿地面积减少了339.63万公顷,其中自然湿地面积减少了337.62万公顷,减少率为9.33%。此外,河流、湖泊湿地沼泽化,河流湿地转为人工库塘等情况也很突出。
  1. Wetland acreages under each category have declined. We compare wetlands of same type, same scope and same coverage in the two national surveys, and find that China’s wetland acreage has declined by 3.3963 million hectares in the last decade. Among them, the acreage of natural wetlands has declined by 3.3762 million hectares, a decrease of 9.33%. In addition, it is a prominent problem that a large area of river and lake wetlands has been converted into marshes and river wetlands into artificial reservoirs and ponds.

  二是湿地保护面积增加。湿地保护面积增加了525.94万公顷,湿地保护率由30.49%提高到43.51%。新增国际重要湿地25块,新建湿地自然保护区279个,新建湿地公园468个,初步形成了较为完善的湿地保护体系。
  2. The acreage of wetlands under conservation has increased. The acreage of wetlands under conservation increased by 5.2594 million hectares, an increase from 30.49% to 43.51%. In the last decade, we have added 25 new wetlands of international importance, built 279 new wetland natural reserves and 468 new wetland parks. We have put in place a primary complete system of wetland conservation.

  三是湿地受威胁压力进一步增大。从重点调查湿地对比情况来看,威胁湿地生态状况主要因子已从十年前的污染、围垦和非法狩猎三大因子,转变为现在的污染、过度捕捞和采集、围垦、外来物种入侵和基建占用五大因子,威胁因子出现频次增加了38.72%。主要威胁因素增加,影响频次和面积都呈增加态势。
  3. Wetlands have come under growing threats and pressures. According to our survey in key wetlands, the three factors affecting wetland ecology ten years ago—pollution, land reclamation and illegal hunting have been expanded into five factors—pollution, excessive fishing and gathering, land reclamation, invasion of alien species, and occupation by infrastructure. The frequency of threatening factors has increased by 38.72%. Major threatening factors as well as their frequency and acreage are on the rise.

  十年来,党中央、国务院更加重视湿地保护。国务院批准了《全国湿地保护工程规划(2002—2030年)》以及该规划的“十一五”和“十二五”实施方案,下发了《关于加强湿地保护管理的通知》,最近5年每年中央1号文件和《政府工作报告》都对湿地保护提出了要求,中央林业工作会议提出要建立湿地生态效益补偿机制,十八大报告强调要:“扩大森林、湖泊、湿地面积,保护生物多样性”等等。为实现这些重大战略决策,国家林业局会同有关部门与各级政府在湿地保护管理上开展了大量工作,在一定程度上促进了湿地保护工作的健康发展。
  In the past decade, the CPC central committee and the State Council have paid more attention to wetland protection. For example, the State Council has approvedThe National Wetlands Conservation Program (2002-2030) and its implementation plans from 2006 to 2010 and from 2011 to 2015, and issued The Notice on Strengthening Wetland Conservation and Administration; the first documents released by the CPC central committee and the Reports on the Work of the Government in each of the past five years all put forward requirements on wetland protection; the central forestry working conference proposed to set up a compensation mechanism for ecological benefits of wetlands; the report of the 18th CPC National Congress stressed the importance of “expanding forests, lakes and wetlands and protecting bio-diversity”. To implement these major and strategic decisions, the State Forestry Administration has worked hard along with other central government departments and local governments in wetland conservation and administration, which has promoted better wetland protection to some extent.

  三、存在问题III. Challenges

  调查结果也同时反映出,我国湿地资源保护与发展依然面临着以下突出问题:
  However, this survey also shows that China faces the following acute challenges in protecting wetland resources.

  一是湿地生物多样性有所减退。由于污染、围垦等原因,湿地生态系统功能下降,生物多样性减退。仅从湿地鸟类资源变化情况看,两次调查记录到的鸟类种类呈现减少趋势,超过一半的鸟类种群数量明显减少。
  1. Wetland bio-diversity is deteriorating. Due to such factors as pollution and excessive herding, wetland ecological functions are declining and wetland bio-diversity is deteriorating. Take birds in wetlands for example. Bird types recorded in the two national surveys have declined, and more than half of all the types of birds experience notable decrease in their populations.

  二是湿地保护空缺较大。近十年来,我国逐步建立了湿地生态系统的保护体系。我国湿地保护率虽然有所提高,但国家重点生态功能区、湿地候鸟迁飞路线、重要江河源头、生态脆弱区和敏感区等范围内的重要湿地,还未全部纳入保护体系之中。如:国家重点生态功能区湿地保护率仅为51.52%,国家重要湿地保护率仅为66.52%。全国湿地保护的空缺还较多,湿地保护管理任务非常艰巨。
  2. Gaps in wetland conservation remain large. In the past decade, China has gradually set up a conservation system for wetland ecology. Despite increase in wetland ratio, many important wetlands such as national key ecological functional areas, migrant birds’ flyways in wetlands, origins of major rivers, and ecologically fragile and sensitive areas have not been fully incorporated into the conservation system. For example, only 51.52%wetlands in national key ecological functional areas are under conservation and only 66.52% national key wetlands are under conservation. Given these gaps, we still face a daunting task in protecting China’s wetland.

  三是管理工作亟待加强。从管理角度看,国家还没有出台湿地保护专门法规(但有18个省区出台了省级湿地保护法规),湿地保护长效机制也未建立,湿地保护的科技支撑还十分薄弱,全社会的湿地保护意识有待进一步提高。
  3. In legislation and regulation, China has not promulgated a national regulation dedicated to wetland conservation (although it has 18 provincial legislations) and has not put in place a long-term wetland conservation mechanism. Science and technology available for wetland conservation remains weak. The general public needs to be more aware of the importance of wetland conservation.


  四、对策措施
  IV. Solutions

  总体看,我国湿地保护形势依然严峻,湿地生态保护与经济社会发展之间的矛盾十分突出,需要全国上下更加重视和支持湿地保护。我们将按照十八大提出“扩大湿地面积”的战略部署,紧紧围绕生态文明建设的总体要求,积极推进湿地立法工作,健全湿地保护管理制度,完善湿地保护管理体系,加强湿地保护宣传教育,进一步扩大湿地保护面积,充分发挥湿地在维护生态安全、应对气候变化、改善生态环境中的重要作用。
  In general, China still faces a severe challenge in protecting wetlands. This has put a serious restraint on rapid economic and social development. The whole country needs to pay more attention and give more support to wetland conservation. To implement the decisions in the report of the 18th CPC National Congress on “expanding wetland acreage”, the State Forestry Administration will focus on the overall ecological objective, vigorously promote wetland legislation, improve the wetland conservation and administration system, step up publicity and education, expand the acreage of wetlands under conservation, give full play to the role of wetlands in maintaining ecological security, addressing climate change, and improving people’s eco-livelihood.

  一是加强法规和制度建设。国家应尽快出台《湿地保护条例》,明确湿地保护职责权限、管理程序和行为准则。制定湿地保护红线,完善湿地生态补偿制度,实行湿地分类管理。
  First, we need to step up legislation and institutional building. China should promulgate The National Wetlands Conservation Regulation as quickly as possible to clearly define powers and responsibilities, administration procedure and code of conduct in wetland conservation. It should set up the red line in wetland conservation, improve the compensation system for wetland ecology and introduce wetland administration by category.

  二是实施生态修复工程。实施《全国湿地保护工程“十二五”实施规划》,加强重要区域湿地保护恢复和综合治理等,扩大湿地面积。在候鸟迁飞路线和国家重点生态功能区范围内的重要湿地,优先开展重大生态修复工程。
  Second, we will implement ecological rehabilitation project. We will implement the 12th Five-Year Implementation Plan ofThe National Wetlands Conservation Program (2002-2030), step up conservation, rehabilitation and comprehensive treatment of key wetlands, and expand the acreage of wetlands. In implementing major ecological rehabilitation projects, priority will be given to important wetlands in national key ecological functional areas, migrant birds’ flyways in wetlands.

  三是完善湿地保护体系。完善和建设以湿地自然保护区为主体,湿地公园和自然保护小区并存的湿地保护体系。加强各级湿地保护管理机构建设,强化湿地保护管理的组织、协调、指导、监督工作,提高湿地保护管理能力。
  Third, we will improve the wetland conservation system. We will further improve the wetland conservation system including, first and foremost, wetland natural reserves, wetland parks, and small natural reserves. We will further strengthen wetland conservation and administration agencies at all levels, improve the organization, coordination, guidance and supervision of wetland conservation and administration, and promote capacity building.

  四是加大科技支撑。开展重点领域科学研究,研究湿地保护和恢复的关键技术,为大规模开展重大生态修复工程服务。建立科学决策咨询机制,为湿地保护决策提供技术咨询服务。
  Fourth, we need to fully play out the role of science and technology. We will carry out scientific research in key fields, and develop key technologies for wetland conservation and rehabilitation technologies to serve major ecological rehabilitation projects in a large scale. We will set up a technical consulting mechanism on sound decision making concerning wetland conservation.

  五是提高全社会保护意识。在全社会开展湿地保护和资源忧患意识宣教活动,增强全民生态保护意识,形成全社会共同参与和支持保护湿地的良好氛围,逐步将湿地保护纳入各级党委和政府的政绩考核范围。
  Fifth, we should enhance the awareness of the general public. We will carry out publicity on wetland conservation and enhance the public awareness of the acute challenges China faces. We hope people from all sections of the society will get involved in and support wetland conservation and wetland conservation will be gradually incorporated into the performance assessment of party committees and governments at all levels.