《关于全面化改革若干重大问题的决定》(下)

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  八、加强社会主义民主政治制度建设
  VIII—Political system

  坚持和完善人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治制度。
  Efforts are to be made to uphold and improve the People's Congress system, the CPC-led multi-party cooperative system and political consultative system, the system of autonomous government in ethnic areas, and the system of grassroots-level mass autonomous government.

  27. 推动人民代表大会制度与时俱进。提高立法质量,防止地方保护和部门利益法制化。加强人大预算决算审查监督、国有资产监督职能。各级政府重大决策出台前向本级人大报告。
  27. Push forward the system of people's congresses to keep up with the times. The quality of legislation should be improved to prevent local protectionism and prevent some departments from legalizing their interests. People's congresses should provide more supervision of the government's financial budget and State-owned assets. Governments at all levels must report to the local people's congresses before adopting important policies.

  28. 推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展。加强中国特色新型智库建设,建立健全决策咨询制度。巩固和发展平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系。各级党委和政府就一些重要决策听取政协意见。
  28. Push forward the multi-layer development of the consultative democracy system. Enhance the construction of new types of think tanks with Chinese characteristics. Promote a consultative policy system. Strengthen and develop equal, unified and harmonious ethnic relationships. Governments should seek advice from the local Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference before making important decisions.

  29. 发展基层民主。健全基层选举、议事、公开、述职、问责等机制。建立健全居民、村民监督机制。健全以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度。
  29. Develop grassroots democracy. Improve the system of grassroots election, discussion, publicity and responsibility. Improve supervision by urban residents and villagers. Improve the democratic management system, such as the workers' representative conferences, in companies and government institutions.

  九、推进法治中国建设
  IX—Rule of law

  深化司法体制改革,加快建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,维护人民权益,让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。
  Efforts are to be made to deepen the reform of the justice system, to protect the people's rights and let the masses feel equality and justice in every court verdict.

  30. 维护宪法法律权威。普遍建立法律顾问制度。完善规范性文件、重大决策合法性审查机制。逐步增加有地方立法权的较大的市数量。
  Uphold the Constitution and laws. Establish a system of legal counsel and improve the review mechanisms on regulations. Give big cities the right to make regulations.

  31. 深化行政执法体制改革。相对集中执法权,加强食品药品、安全生产、环境保护等重点领域基层执法力量。提高城管执法和服务水平。
  Deepen reforms of administrative law enforcement.Centralize administrative powers and allocate more law enforcement resources in key areas, including food production, medicine production and environmental protection. Improve the service quality of urban management.

  32. 确保依法独立公正行使审判权检察权。推动省以下地方法院、检察院人财物统一管理,探索建立与行政区划适当分离的司法管辖制度。
  Ensure independence and fairness in courts and prosecuting bodies. Unify the management of staff members and properties of courts and procuratorates below the provincial level. Separate the jurisdiction of courts from administrative divisions.

  33. 推进审判公开、检务公开,录制并保留全程庭审资料。严格规范减刑、假释、保外就医程序。
  Let the judicial system be more transparent. Record and keep all court files. Strictly regulate procedures of sentence commuting, parole and medical parole.

  34. 完善人权司法保障制度。严格实行非法证据排除规则。逐步减少适用死刑罪名。废止劳动教养制度,健全国家司法救助制度,完善法律援助制度。
  Boost the judicial system to protect human rights. Improve mechanisms to avoid false accusations and confessions obtained through torture. Gradually reduce the number of charges that could lead to a death penalty. Laojiao, or re-education through labor, will be abolished. Meanwhile, strengthen the judicial relief and legal aid system.

  十、强化权力运行制约和监督体系
  X—Supervision of power

  坚持用制度管权管事管人,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行,是把权力关进制度笼子的根本之策。
  The key to empowering the system is to keep it open and easy to monitor by the people and to have a complex system governing its proceedings.

  35. 形成科学有效的权力制约和协调机制。完善党和国家领导体制,坚持民主集中制。规范各级党政主要领导干部职责权限,推行地方各级政府及其工作部门权力清单制度。
  Establish a scientific and effective means of power restriction, with a coordination mechanism. Improve the leadership system of the Party and the State, and insist on enforcing the principle of democratic centralism. Specify the responsibilities and scope of power of officials at various levels. Provide a list of the powers of local governments and affiliated bodies at various levels.

  36. 加强反腐败体制机制创新和制度保障。落实党风廉政建设责任制,党委负主体责任,纪委负监督责任,全面落实中央纪委向中央一级党和国家机关派驻纪检机构,实行统一管理。
  Enhance innovative systems for identifying corruption. Anti-corruption responsibility belongs to the Party committee, with the commission for discipline inspection being responsible for supervision. Ensure that the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection sends discipline inspectors to central-level Party and government organs and exercises unified management.

  37. 健全改进作风常态化制度。围绕反对形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风,加快体制机制改革和建设。减少会议、文件,健全严格的财务预算、核准和审计制 度,着力控制“三公”经费支出和楼堂馆所建设。改革政绩考核机制,着力解决“形象工程”、“政绩工程”以及不作为、乱作为等问题。
  Normalize a system for improving the work style of officials and government departments. Speed up reform to fight formalism, bureaucracy, hedonism and extravagance. Reduce meetings and simplify official documents. Improve the financial budgeting process, along with approval and audit systems, and focus on the control of administrative expense. Reform the evaluation process for officials and focus on solving the problem of vanity projects.

  十一、推进文化体制机制创新
  XI—Cultural system

  建设社会主义文化强国,增强国家文化软实力,发展中国特色社会主义文化。
  Building a culturally strong country, and increasing its cultural power is the root of China's cultural development.

  38. 推动政府部门由办文化向管文化转变,健全网络突发事件处置机制,推动新闻发布制度化。严格新闻工作者职业资格制度。
  Transfer the role of the government from being the provider of cultural products to the manager. Improve the mechanism for dealing with emergencies on the Internet. Institutionalize the government information release system and standardize the vocational qualifications of journalists.

  39. 继续推进国有经营性文化单位转企改制。鼓励非公有制文化企业发展,允许参与对外出版、网络出版。扩大政府文化资助和文化采购,加强版权保护。
  Further transform State-owned, for-profit cultural institutions into enterprises. Encourage the development of non-public-owned cultural enterprises, allowing them to participate in overseas publishing and online publishing. Expand government subsidies and procurement, and strengthen copyright protection.

  40. 构建现代公共文化服务体系。建立群众评价和反馈机制,推动文化惠民项目与群众文化需求有效对接。鼓励社会力量、社会资本参与公共文化服务体系建设,培育文化非营利组织。
  Build a modernized public cultural services system. Establish a feedback mechanism to ensure that cultural programs can effectively meet the demands of the people. Encourage social forces and capital investment in cultural services. Cultivate nonprofit organizations.

  41. 提高文化开放水平。扩大对外文化交流,支持重点媒体面向国内国际发展。
  Further open up cultural markets by enlarging the scope of cultural exchanges. Support key media to expand cultural exchange into national and international markets.

  十二、推进社会事业改革创新
  XII—Social services

  实现发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,必须加快社会事业改革。
  Reform is to be quickened to allow more benefits from the development to be more equally shared by all people.

  42. 深化教育领域综合改革。推进考试招生制度改革,学生考试多次选择,从根本上解决一考定终身的弊端。扩大省级政府教育统筹权和学校办学自主权。
  Deepen educational reform. Continue reforms of the examination and enrollment system by evaluating students not only by their final exam scores but also their performance in school. Students should get more than one chance to take an exam that decides their enrollment. Provincial-level educational authorities and schools should enjoy greater autonomy.

  43. 健全促进就业创业体制机制。促进以高校毕业生为重点的青年就业和农村转移劳动力、城镇困难人员、退役军人就业。实行激励高校毕业生自主创业政策,整合发展国家和省级高校毕业生就业创业基金。
  Improve the supporting mechanism for employment and entrepreneurship. Employment-supporting policies should target college graduates, migrant workers, impoverished city dwellers and retired soldiers. Entrepreneurship of college students and making better use of government funds to help graduates work and start their own businesses should be promoted.

  44. 形成合理有序的收入分配格局。健全工资决定和正常增长机制,完善企业工资集体协商制度。优化上市公司投资者回报机制,保护投资者尤其是中小投资者合法权益,多渠道增加居民财产性收入。完善慈善捐助减免税制度,清理规范隐性收入。
  Optimize the income distribution system. Improve collective bargaining between capital and labor to decide salaries and pay raises. Protect investors' legal rights and improve the investment return system for listed companies. Increase residents' income by diversifying investment channels. Improve tax deduction policies on charitable donations. Clean up gray income.

  45. 建立更加公平可持续的社会保障制度。研究制定渐进式延迟退休年龄政策。实现基础养老金全国统筹,推进机关事业单位养老保险制度改革。推进基金多元化投资运营。加快建立社会养老服务体系和发展老年服务产业。健全农村留守儿童、妇女、老年人关爱服务体系。
  Establish a fairer and more sustainable social welfare system. Stipulate policies for gradually suspending the retirement age of employees. The central government will take over the social pooling component of pensions for urban and rural residents. Speed up reform of pension programs for employees in public institutions affiliated with government departments. Diversify investment vehicles for the national social security fund. Further develop the elderly services industry and improve protection mechanisms for left-behind children, women and seniors.

  46. 深化医药卫生体制改革。启动实施一方是独生子女的夫妇可生育两个孩子的政策,逐步调整完善生育政策。加快公立医院改革。鼓励社会办医,优先支持举办非营利性医疗机构。允许医师多点执业,允许民办医疗机构纳入医保定点范围。
  Deepen the reform of the medical and health sectors. Allow couples to have two children if one parent is a single child and improve the family planning policy. Speed the reform of public hospitals. Encourage private investment in the medical sector and prioritize supporting nonprofit hospitals run by private investors. Allow doctors to have a license to work in more than one hospital. Allow medical insurance to cover private hospitals.

  十三、创新社会治理体制
  XIII—Social governance

  最大限度增加和谐因素,增强社会发展活力,维护国家安全
  Efforts are to be made to promote harmony and vitality of society and to maintain State security.

  47. 改进社会治理方式。运用法治思维和法治方式化解社会矛盾。健全基层综合服务管理平台,及时反映和协调人民群众各方面各层次利益诉求。
  Innovate social governance methods. Use legal frameworks and legal methods to reconcile social conflicts. The government should continue to optimize governance and service platforms at the grassroots level and respond to the interests of the people in a timely manner.

  48. 激发社会组织活力。适合由社会组织提供的公共服务和解决的事项,交由社会组织承担。重点培育和优先发展行业协会商会类、科技类、公益慈善类、城乡社区服务类社会组织,成立时直接依法申请登记。
  Stimulate the vitality of social organizations. Social organizations will take over public services they are suitable to provide. The country will prioritize the development of industry associations, trade unions and social organizations in fields of science and charity, as well as urban and rural community services. They are to directly apply and register according to the law when they are founded.

  49. 创新有效预防和化解社会矛盾体制。健全重大决策社会稳定风险评估机制。改革行政复议体制,纠正违法或不当行政行为。改革信访工作制度,实行网上受理信访制度。
  Reform the project of preventing and reconciling social conflicts. A plan will be established to evaluate risks to social stability in the making of major decisions. The country will further reform the administrative review system and correct illegal or inappropriate administrative actions. The petition system will be reformed and a system established to take public petitions online.

  50.健全公共安全体系。完善统一权威的食品药品安全监管机构。建立食品原产地可追溯制度和质量标识制度,设立国家安全委员会,确保国家安全。
  Improve the public security system. The country will build a strict supervisory system covering food and drug safety. A tracing-back system will be created for food production and quality labeling. The country will set up a State security committee in order to ensure the security of the nation.

  十四、加快生态文明制度建设
  XIV—Ecological civilization

  必须建立系统完整的生态文明制度体系,实行最严格的源头保护制度。
  A comprehensive system is to be established, featuring the strictest possible rules to protect the ecological system.

  51. 健全自然资源资产产权制度和用途管制制度。对水流、森林等自然生态空间进行统一确权登记,建立空间规划体系,划定生产、生活、生态空间开发管制界限。
  51. Improve the property rights system for natural resources and the administration of their use. Register natural resources, such as bodies of water and forests, in the property rights system, establish a space-planning system and clarify development restrictions for land and space.

  52. 划定生态保护红线。建立国家公园体制。建立资源环境承载能力监测预警机制,对限制开发区域和生态脆弱的国家扶贫开发工作重点县取消地区生产总值考核。探索编制自然资源资产负债表,对领导干部实行自然资源资产离任审计。建立生态环境损害责任终身追究制。
  52. Draw a “red line” for ecological protection. To set up a national park system. Build monitoring and warning mechanisms for the carrying capacity of natural resources and the environment. End the GDP assessment of key poverty-alleviation areas with fragile eco-systems. Explore and establish a natural resources balance sheet, officials will receive audits on natural resources when leaving office. A lifelong responsibility system for bioenvironment damage will be established.

  53. 实行资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。加快自然资源及其产品价格改革,逐步将资源税扩展到占用各种自然生态空间。提高工业用地价格。发展环保市场,推行节能量、碳排放权、排污权、水权交易制度。
  53. Establish a system of paid use for natural resources ecological compensation. Accelerate reforms of natural resources commodities pricing, and gradually levy taxes on all kinds of natural resources and space. Increase the price of industrial land. Develop a market for environment protection and push ahead with a trading system for pollution discharge, carbon emissions and water rights.

  54. 改革生态环境保护管理体制。建立和完善严格监管所有污染物排放的环境保护管理制度,及时公布环境信息,健全举报制度,加强社会监督。完善污染物排放许可制,对造成生态环境损害的责任者严格实行赔偿制度,依法追究刑事责任。
  54. Reform environmental protection and management systems. Establish a system in which all pollutants are monitored and regulated. Release timely environmental information and improve the reporting system to strengthen social supervision. Improve the pollutant-discharge licensing system and control the pollutants. Polluters who damage the environment must compensate for the damage and could receive criminal sanctions.

  十五、深化国防和军队改革
  XV—Defense and army reform

  建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队。
  The People's Liberation Army must be loyal to the CPC, be able to win and be persistent with its good traditions.

  55. 深化军队体制编制调整改革。健全军委联合作战指挥机构和战区联合作战指挥体制,推进联合作战训练和保障体制改革。优化武装警察部队力量结构和指挥管理体制。调整改善军兵种比例、官兵比例、部队与机关比例,减少非战斗机构和人员。
  55. Deepen the reform of the military's composition and functions. Improve the combined combat command systems of the Central Military Commission and military commands. Push forward reform of training and logistics for joint combat operations. Optimize the structure and command mechanism of the Armed Police Force. Adjust the personnel composition of the military and reduce non-combatant departments and staff members.

  56. 推进军队政策制度调整改革。以建立军官职业化制度为牵引,逐步形成科学规范的军队干部制度体系。健全军费管理制度。
  56. Boost the adjustment of military policies and mechanisms. A modern personnel system for officers will gradually take shape with the establishment of an all-volunteer officer system as the initial step. Improve management of military expenditures.

  57. 推动军民融合深度发展。改革国防科研生产管理和武器装备采购体制机制,引导优势民营企业进入军品科研生产和维修领域。
  57. Boost coordinated development of military and civilian industries. Reform the development, production and procurement of weapons. Encourage private businesses to invest in the development and repair sectors of military products.

  十六、加强和改善党对全面深化改革的领导
  XVI—CPC's leadership

  加强和改善党的领导,建设学习型、服务型、创新型的马克思主义执政党。
  The CPC must strengthen and improve its leadership in such a way to become a Party that learns, innovates and serves the people.

  58. 充分发扬党内民主,坚决维护中央权威,保证政令畅通,坚定不移实现中央改革决策部署。中央成立全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调。
  58. Promote intra-Party democracy and firmly maintain the central leadership, ensuring that orders are timely received and fully implemented. The Central Reform Leading Group is commissioned to design and coordinate the reform.

  59. 改革和完善干部考核评价制度,推进干部能上能下、能进能出。打破体制壁垒,扫除身份障碍,让人人都有成长成才、脱颖而出的通道,让各类人才都有施展才华的广阔天地。完善党政机关、企事业单位、社会各方面人才顺畅流动的制度体系。广泛吸引境外优秀人才回国或来华创业发展。
  59. Reform the evaluation and promotion system for Party officials. Improve a system in which officials can be demoted or fired for poor performance. Encourage talent and clear barriers to recruiting the best. Smooth talent flow among Party and government bodies, enterprises and social organizations. Better attract foreign talent and overseas Chinese to develop their careers in China.

  60. 鼓励地方、基层和群众大胆探索,加强重大改革试点工作。及时总结经验,宽容改革失误。
  60. Encourage innovation and exploration at the local and grassroots level. Strengthen the major reform pilot program, timely sum up experience and tolerate mistakes.