《关于全面化改革若干重大问题的决定》(上)

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《中共中央关于全面化改革若干重大问题的决定》
(2013年11月12日在中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议上通过)

  The Decision on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms was adopted at the close of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee on Tuesday. The following is an abridged version of the full text of the document:

  一、全面深化改革的重大意义和指导思想
  Significance and principles

  1. 改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键抉择。解放思想永无止境,改革开放永无止境。必须在新的历史起点上全面深化改革。
  Reform and opening-up has been a crucial choice that China has made regarding its destiny in modern times. But there can never be an end to the need for the emancipation of individual thought or for continuing reform and opening-up. China must deepen its all-round reform with a new starting point.

  2. 坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向,以促进社会公平正义、增进人民福祉为出发点和落脚点。全面深化改革的总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。紧紧围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用深化经济体制改革。紧紧围绕坚持党的领导、加快推进社会主义民主政治制度化。紧紧围绕建设社会主义核心价值体系深化文化体制改革。紧紧围绕更好保障和改善民生、促进社会公平正义深化社会体制改革。紧紧围绕建设美丽中国深化生态文明体制改革。紧紧围绕提高科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平深化党的建设制度改革。
  China must stick to the socialist market economy as the orientation of its reform, must promote social fairness and justice and must seek to advance the well-being of the people. The general purpose of deepening its all-round reform is to develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, to advance modernization in the State governance system and governance capability. The basic economic system should evolve on the decisive role of the market in resource allocation. Political reform must evolve around the leadership of the Communist Party of China and advance the institutionalization of socialist democracy. Cultural reform must evolve around the socialist core value system. Social reform must evolve around the protection and improvement of the people's livelihood and advance fairness and justice. The development of an eco-conscious civilization must evolve around the building of a beautiful China. The reform of Party building must evolve on the effort to raise the level of governance to be scientific, democratic and according to the law.

  3. 经济体制改革是全面深化改革的重点。
  The reform of the economic system is the focus of all the efforts to deepen the all-round reform.

  4. 改革开放的成功实践为全面深化改革提供了重要经验,必须长期坚持。到二0二0年,在重要领域和关键环节改革上取得决定性成果。
  The successful experience of the past reform and opening-up must be built upon. Decisive results are to be obtained in key areas in 2020.

  二、坚持和完善基本经济制度
  Basic economic system

  公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱。公有制经济和非公有制经济都是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。
  China's economic system is one with public ownership serving as its main body but allowing for the development of all types of ownership. Both public and non-public ownership are key components of China's socialist market economy.

  5. 完善产权保护制度。产权是所有制的核心。公有制经济财产权不可侵犯,非公有制经济财产权同样不可侵犯。国家保护各种所有制经济产权和合法利益,保证各种所有制经济依法平等使用生产要素、公开公平公正参与市场竞争、同等受到法律保护,依法监管各种所有制经济。
  Complete the property rights protection system. Property rights are the key factor of ownership. The property rights of the public economy are inviolable, as are the property rights of the non-public economy. The government protects the property rights and legitimate interests of all kinds of ownership by ensuring that various ownerships have equal access to production factors, open and fair market competition and the same legal protection and supervision.

  6. 积极发展混合所有制经济。国有资本、集体资本、非公有资本等交叉持股、相互融合的混合所有制经济,是基本经济制度的重要实现形式,有利于国有资本放大功能、保值增值、提高竞争力。允许更多国有经济和其他所有制经济发展成为混合所有制经济。国有资本投资项目允许非国有资本参股。允许混合所有制经济实行企业员工持股,形成资本所有者和劳动者利益共同体。完善国有资产管理体制,以管资本为主加强国有资产监管。组建若干国有资本运营公司,支持有条件的国有企业改组为国有资本投资公司。划转部分国有资本充实社会保障基金。完善国有资本经营预算制度,提高国有资本收益上缴公共财政比例,二0二0年提到百分之三十,更多用于保障和改善民生。
  Actively develop a diversified ownership economy. Diversified ownership integrated by State capital, collective capital and private capital is the prime method for materializing the basic economic system, helping improve functions, increase value and promote the competitiveness of State capital. Allow more State-owned enterprises and other ownership enterprises to develop into mixed-ownership enterprises. Non-State shares will be allowed in State capital investment projects. Mixed-ownership enterprises will be allowed to utilize employee stock ownership to form a vested community of capital owners and workers. Improve the State-owned assets-management system and strengthen State-asset supervision by focusing on capital management. Establish a number of State-owned capital operating companies and back the transformation of qualified State-owned enterprises into State-owned investment companies. Transfer some State-owned capital to social security funds. Improve the State-owned capital operation budget system and increase the proportion of State capital gains paid in public financing to 30 percent by 2020, which will be used to ensure and improve people's livelihoods.

  7. 推动国有企业完善现代企业制度。准确界定不同国有企业功能。国有资本加大对公益性企业的投入。国有资本继续控股经营的自然垄断行业,实行以政企分开、政资分开、特许经营、政府监管为主要内容的改革。进一步破除各种形式的行政垄断。健全协调运转、有效制衡的公司法人治理结构。建立职业经理人制度。建立长效激励约束机制,强化国有企业经营投资责任追究,探索推进国有企业财务预算等重大信息公开。国有企业要合理增加市场化选聘比例,合理确定并严格规范国有企业管理人员薪酬水平、职务待遇、职务消费、业务消费。
  Push for a modern system for State-owned enterprises. Accurately define the functions of different SOEs. Increase State capital's contribution to public services. In the natural monopoly industries held by State capital, the separation of government and enterprises, of government and funds, and of franchise operation and government supervision are the main thrust of the reform. Further break all forms of administrative monopoly. Improve coordinated and effective corporate governance structure. Establish a professional management system. Establish long-term incentive and restraint mechanisms, strengthen SOE's investment accountability and explore ways to publicize important information, including SOEs' financial budgets. State-owned enterprises should reasonably increase the proportion of market-oriented recruitment, reasonably determine and strictly regulate SOE executives' wage levels, and position benefits, consumption and business spending.

  8. 支持非公有制经济健康发展。非公有制经济在支撑增长、促进创新、扩大就业、增加税收等方面具有重要作用。坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,废除对非公有制经济各种形式的不合理规定,消除各种隐性壁垒,制定非公有制企业进入特许经营领域具体办法。鼓励非公有制企业参与国有企业改革,鼓励发展非公有资本控股的混合所有制企业,鼓励有条件的私营企业建立现代企业制度。
  Support the healthy development of the non-public economy, which will play an important role in fostering growth, promoting innovation, expanding employment and increasing tax revenues. Adhere to the equality of rights, equality of opportunity and equality of rules; abolish all forms of unreasonable regulations on the non-public economy, eliminate hidden barriers and fix specific measures promoting non-public enterprises entering franchising fields. Encourage non-public enterprises to participate in SOE reform, encourage their capital holdings of diversified-ownership enterprises and encourage qualified private enterprises to establish modern enterprise systems.
  

  三、加快完善现代市场体系
  Modern market system

  建设统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系。
  Efforts are to be made to build a market system that is uniform but open, orderly and competitive.

  9. 建立公平开放透明的市场规则。实行统一的市场准入制度,在制定负面清单基础上,各类市场主体可依法平等进入清单之外领域。改革市场监管体系,严禁和惩处各类违法实行优惠政策行为,反对地方保护,反对垄断。健全优胜劣汰市场化退出机制。
  Make market rules that are fair, open and transparent. Implement a unified marketentrance system, with market players of all kinds able to enter equally and legitimatelyinto areas that are not on the negative list. Reform the market regulation system, erasing regional protection, illegitimate favorable policies and monopoly. Perfect the market exit mechanism to promote the survival of the fittest.

  10. 完善主要由市场决定价格的机制。凡是能由市场形成价格的都交给市场。推进水、石油、天然气、电力、交通、电信等领域价格改革。政府定价范围主要限定在重要公用事业、公益性服务、网络型自然垄断环节。
  Perfect a mechanism where prices are determined by the market. Any price that can be affected by the market must be left to the market. Push ahead with price reforms of water, oil and natural gas, electricity, transportation and telecommunication. Areas in which the government sets prices will be confined to public utilities, public service and areas that are naturally monopolized.

  11. 建立城乡统一的建设用地市场。在符合规划和用途管制前提下,允许农村集体经营性建设用地出让、租赁、入股。扩大国有土地有偿使用范围。减少非公益性用地划拨。
  Form a construction-land market that unifies urban and rural areas. Allow the sale, leasing and demutualization of rural, collectively owned buildable land under the premise that it conforms to planning. Enlarge the area in which State-owned land can be leased. Reduce land allocation that does not promote public welfare.

  12. 完善金融市场体系。扩大金融业对内对外开放。在加强监管前提下,允许具备条件的民间资本依法发起设立中小型银行等金融机构。推进政策性金融机构改革。推进股票发行注册制改革,,提高直接融资比重。完善人民币汇率市场化形成机制。加快推进利率市场化,加快实现人民币资本项目可兑换。建立存款保险制度,完善金融机构市场化退出机制。
  Improve financial markets. Further open up the financial industry. Allow qualified private capital to set up financial institutions such as small- and medium-sized banks, under enhanced supervision. Push ahead with reform of policy-based financial institutions. Promote reform toward a registration-based stock-issuing system and increase the proportion of direct financing. Improve market-based exchange rate formation mechanisms for the renminbi. Accelerate interest rate liberalization and capital-account convertibility. Build a deposit insurance system and complete the market-based exit system for financial institutions.

  13. 深化科技体制改革。建立健全鼓励创新的体制机制。健全技术创新市场导向机制。加强知识产权运用和保护。探索建立知识产权法院。打破行政主导和部门分割,建立主要由市场决定技术创新项目和经费分配、评价成果的机制。完善风险投资机制,创新商业模式,促进科技成果资本化、产业化。
  Deepen science and technology system reform. Set up and complete a system that encourages innovation. Perfect a market-based system that encourages technological innovation. Strengthen intellectual property application and protection. Explore ways to set up intellectual-property courts. Break executive-leading and departmental segmentation, building a system where the market decides innovation program selection, resource allocation and result assessment. Improve the venture capital system, innovate business models and promote capitalization and industrialization, and scientific and technological achievements.

  四、加快转变政府职能
  Government role

  必须切实转变政府职能,建设法治政府和服务型政府。
  The government must effectively shift its role by building itself into a service-type government that bases its functions on the law.

  14. 健全宏观调控体系。企业投资项目,除关系国家安全和生态安全、涉及全国重大生产力布局、战略性资源开发和重大公共利益等项目外,一律由企业依法依规自主决策,政府不再审批。建立健全防范和化解产能过剩长效机制。完善发展成果考核评价体系,纠正单纯以经济增长速度评定政绩的偏向。编制全国和地方资产负债表,建立全社会房产、信用等基础数据统一平台。
  Improve macroeconomic regulation and control. Government review and approval procedures will be removed for investors except in areas relating to national security, ecological safety, important arrangements for manufacturing capacity, development of strategic resources and crucial public interests. Establish and improve the long-term mechanism to prevent overcapacity in manufacturing sectors. Form a comprehensive assessment system for officials' performance to rectify the one that overemphasizes GDP growth. Produce charts of assets and debts of central and local governments, and set up integrated credit and real-estate data platforms.

  15. 全面正确履行政府职能。进一步简政放权,深化行政审批制度改革,最大限度减少中央政府对微观事务的管理。市场机制能有效调节的经济活动,一律取消审批。推广政府购买服务,引入竞争机制。逐步取消公办事业单位的行政级别,建立各类事业单位统一登记管理制度。
  Perform government duties comprehensively and correctly. Further deepen the reform of administrative review and approval procedures, and reduce the central government's control over market operations to a minimal level. The government should withdraw from business activities that can be regulated and modulated by market rules. Competition must be introduced and strengthened in the government's purchase of services. Gradually abrogate the administrative rank of publicly funded organizations and set up a registration mechanism for such organizations.

  16. 优化政府组织结构。积极稳妥实施大部门制。有条件的地方探索推进省直接管理县(市)体制改革。严格控制财政供养人员总量。
  Streamline government structure. Actively and steadily carry out reform that merges ministries that have overlapping functions. Encourage some provinces to explore provincial government's direct administration of cities or counties. Strictly control the number and expense of government employees.
  

  五、深化财税体制改革
  V—Fiscal and tax system

  财税体制是国家治理的重要保障。
  The fiscal and taxation system is an important guarantee of State governance.

  17. 改进预算管理制度。建立规范合理的中央和地方政府债务管理及风险预警机制。中央出台增支政策形成的地方财力缺口,原则上通过一般性转移支付调节。清理、整合、规范专项转移支付项目。
  17. Improve the budgetary system. Establish a standard and reasonable debt-management system for central and local governments and a risk-alert system. In principle, a shortfall in local government should be filled by general transfer payments. Clean, merge and standardize special transfer payments.

  18. 完善税收制度。完善地方税体系,逐步提高直接税比重。推进增值税改革,适当简化税率。调整消费税征收范围和税率。把高耗能、高污染产品及部分高档消费品纳入征收消费税范围。加快房地产税立法并适时推进改革,推动环境保护费改税。
  18. Improve the taxation system. Perfect the local taxation base by gradually raising the share of direct taxation. Advance value-added tax reform and simplify rate levels, and adjust the scope and rate of the consumption tax. Energy and pollution-intensive products and high-end consumer products will be subject to a consumption tax. Also, accelerate property-tax legislation and related reform at an appropriate time. Change the current environmental-protection fee into an environment tax.

  19. 建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度。适度加强中央事权和支出责任。国防、外交、国家安全、关系全国统一市场规则和管理等作为中央事权。保持现有中央和地方财力格局总体稳定。进一步理顺中央和地方收入划分。
  19. Establish a system in which the government's administrative authority is commensurate with its spending responsibility. Increase the administrative authority and spending responsibility of the central government. The central government will oversee expenditure for defense, diplomacy, national security and other issues related to national market rule and management. Keep the current fiscal power of central and local governments stable. Close the fiscal revenue divide between central and local government.

  六、健全城乡发展一体化体制机制
  VI—Urban-rural development

  城乡二元结构是制约城乡发展一体化的主要障碍。必须让广大农民平等参与现代化进程。
  The existing urban-rural dual structure is a main obstacle to integrated development. Efforts must be made to allow farmers to participate in China's modernization.

  20. 加快构建新型农业经营体系。推进家庭经营、集体经营、合作经营、企业经营等共同发展的农业经营方式。依法维护农民土地承包经营权。允许农民以承包经营权入股发展农业产业化经营。鼓励和引导工商资本到农村发展适合企业化经营的现代种养业,向农业输入现代生产要素和经营模式。
  20. Accelerate the building of a new agricultural-operation system based on a mix of family, collective, cooperative and enterprise operations. Land-contracting rights will be protected. Farmers are allowed to become shareholders in the agriculture-industrialization via their land-contracting rights. Private capital is encouraged to invest in a modern planting and breeding industry, and for introducing modern production and management methods.

  21. 赋予农民更多财产权利。积极发展农民股份合作,赋予农民对集体资产股份占有、收益、有偿退出及抵押、担保、继承权。改革完善农村宅基地制度,保障农户宅基地用益物权,选择若干试点,探索农民增加收入渠道。建立农村产权流转交易市场。
  21. Farmers will be given more property rights. They are encouraged to develop a shareholding system from which they can realize benefits. Meanwhile, they can also sell a share or take it as collateral or warranty. They also have the right of succession. Moreover, the homestead system in rural areas will be improved, and farmers' usufruct rights of homestead will be ensured. A pilot program will be carried out in some areas to discover other channels for improving farmers' income. A rural property-rights trading market will be established.

  22. 推进城乡要素平等交换和公共资源均衡配置。保障农民工同工同酬,保障农民公平分享土地增值收益,保障金融机构农村存款主要用于农业农村。改革农业补贴制度,完善农业保险制度。鼓励社会资本投向农村建设。
  22. A more balanced allocation of public resources between urban and rural areas will be promoted. Migrant workers should get the same pay for the same job. Farmers should receive a fair share of the profits from land-value appreciation. Deposits in rural financial institutions should be mainly used to finance the development of agriculture and rural areas. The agricultural subsidiary system and insurance system will be improved. Social-capital investment is encouraged for construction in rural areas.

  23. 完善城镇化健康发展体制机制。推进以人为核心的城镇化。加快户籍制度改革,推进农业转移人口市民化。全面放开建制镇和小城市落户限制,有序放开中等城市落户限制。合理确定大城市落户条件,严格控制特大城市人口规模。稳步推进城镇基本公共服务常住人口全覆盖,把进城落户农民完全纳入城镇住房和社会保障体系。
  23. Build a healthy urbanization that puts people at the center. Reform of the hukou (or household registration) system will be accelerated to help farmers become urban residents. The country will relax overall control of farmers settling in towns and small cities, and relax restrictions on settling in medium-sized cities in an orderly manner. China should set reasonable requirements for rural residents to obtain hukou in large cities, and strictly control the size of population in megacities. Efforts should be made to make basic urban public services available to all permanent residents in cities, including all rural residents. This includes the affordable-housing system and the social security network.

  七、构建开放型经济新体制
  VII—Further opening-up

  必须推动对内对外开放相互促进、引进来和走出去更好结合。
  Efforts are to be made to facilitate overseas companies' entry to China and Chinese companies' expansion abroad.

  24. 放宽投资准入。推进金融、教育、文化、医疗等服务业领域有序开放,放开育幼养老、建筑设计、会计审计、商贸物流、电子商务等服务业领域外资准入限制,进一步放开一般制造业。加快海关特殊监管区域整合优化。在推进中国上海自由贸易试验区基础上,选择若干具备条件地方发展自由贸易园(港)区。允许企业及个人自担风险到各国各地区自由承揽工程和劳务合作项目,允许创新方式走出去开展绿地投资、并购投资、证券投资、联合投资等。加快同有关国家和地区商签投资协定。
  24. Widen investment access. The finance, education, culture and medical sectors will enjoy an orderly opening-up to market access, while nursery, pension, architecture design, accounting and auditing, trade and logistics, and e-commerce investment restrictions will be eased. Further liberalization will be achieved in general manufacturing, and the streamlining of special customs supervisory areas will be accelerated. Based on practices in the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, a number of qualified areas will be built into FTAs. Enterprises and individuals will be encouraged to invest overseas and undertake contract and labor cooperation projects at their own risk, through greenfield investment, mergers and acquisitions, equities and joint investment. Investment treaty negotiations with other countries and regions will be expedited.

  25. 加快自由贸易区建设。坚持世界贸易体制规则,坚持双边、多边、区域次区域开放合作。改革市场准入、海关监管、检验检疫等管理体制。加快环境保护、投资保护、政府采购、电子商务等新议题谈判,形成面向全球的高标准自由贸易区网络。
  25. Construction of free-trade zones will be sped up, with adherence to the rules of world trade system and insistence on bilateral, multilateral and regional cooperation. Reforms will be carried out in market access, customs supervision and inspection and quarantine management. Negotiations in emerging issues such as environmental protection, investment protection, government procurement and e-commerce will be accelerated to form a global, high-standard network of free trade zones.

  26. 扩大内陆沿边开放。形成内陆产业集群。支持内陆城市增开国际客货运航线,发展多式联运。推动内陆同沿海沿边通关协作,实现口岸管理相关部门信息互换、监管互认、执法互助。允许沿边重点口岸、边境城市、经济合作区在人员往来、加工物流、旅游等方面实行特殊方式和政策。建立开发性金融机构,加快同周边国家和区域基础设施互联互通建设。
  26. Inland and border areas will be further opened up. With the formation of industrial clusters, inland cities will be encouraged to open international passenger and cargo air routes, and develop multimodal transportation. An exchange of information, mutual recognition of supervision and assistance in law enforcement will be achieved among coastal border clearance and port management departments. Special methods and policies will be implemented at key borders, and in bordering cities and economic cooperation zones to promote personnel exchanges, logistics and tourism. Financial institutions focusing on development will be established to accelerate infrastructural connections among neighboring countries and regions.