国家人权行动计划(2016—2020年)

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国家人权行动计划(2016—2020年)
National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2016-2020)
中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China
  目录
  Contents
  导言
  Introduction
  一、经济、社会和文化权利
  I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  (一)工作权利
  (1) Right to work
  (二)基本生活水准权利
  (2) Right to basic living standards
  (三)社会保障权利
  (3) Right to social security
  (四)财产权利
  4) Right to property
  (五)健康权利
  (5) Right to health
  (六)受教育权
  (6) Right to education
  (七)文化权利
  (7) Cultural rights
  (八)环境权利
  (8) Environmental rights
  二、公民权利和政治权利
  II. Civil and Political Rights
  (一)人身权利
  (1) Rights of the person
  (二)获得公正审判的权利
  (2) Right to fair trial
  (三)宗教信仰自由
  (3) Freedom of religious belief
  (四)知情权和参与权
  (4) Rights to know and to participate
  (五)表达权和监督权
  (5) Rights of expression and supervision
  三、特定群体权利
  III. Rights of Specific Groups
  (一)少数民族权利
  (1) Rights of ethnic minorities
  (二)妇女权利
  (2) Rights of women
  (三)儿童权利
  (3) Rights of children
  (四)老年人权利
  (4) Rights of the elderly
  (五)残疾人权利
  (5) Rights of the disabled
  四、人权教育和研究
  IV. Human Rights Education and Research
  五、人权条约履行和国际交流合作
  V. Fulfillment of Obligations to Human Rights Conventions and International Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights
  六、实施和监督
  VI. Implementation and Supervision
  导言
  Introduction
  2016—2020年,是中国全面建成小康社会的决胜阶段,也是实现中国人权事业持续稳定有序发展的重要时期。
  The period from 2016 to 2020 is a decisive stage for China in the building of a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way as well as a major stage for realizing the orderly, steady and sustainable development of human rights in China.
  自2009年以来,国家先后实施了两期人权行动计划。中国政府不断加大各项人权保障力度,人民生活水平和质量进一步提高,经济、社会和文化权利得到全面加强,公民权利和政治权利得到切实保障,全社会尊重和保障人权的意识明显提升,国际人权交流与合作不断发展,中国特色社会主义人权事业迈上新台阶。
  China has implemented two national human rights action plans since 2009. As the government constantly enhances the protection of human rights, the people’s standard of living and quality of life have seen further improvement, their economic, social and cultural rights and interests have been strengthened, their civil rights and political rights have been guaranteed, the public’s consciousness of respecting and guaranteeing human rights has enhanced significantly, international human rights exchanges and cooperation have constantly developed, and the cause of socialist human rights with Chinese characteristics has moved up to a new level.
  但也应该看到,经济发展方式粗放,不平衡、不协调、不可持续的问题仍然突出,城乡区域发展差距仍然较大,与人民群众切身利益密切相关的医疗、教育、养老、食品药品安全、收入分配、环境等方面还有一些困难需要解决,人权保障的法治化水平仍需进一步提高,实现更高水平的人权保障目标尚需付出更多努力。
  Nevertheless, we are keenly aware that problems, some of them serious, remain. China’s economic development pattern is still extensive, unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable. There is still a huge gap between urban and rural development. Difficulties need to be solved in such fields as health care, education, care for the aged, food and drug safety, income distribution and the environment – all of which are closely related to the people’s vital interests. The rule of law in safeguarding human rights needs to be further promoted and more efforts are required to realize higher levels of human rights protection.
  在总结第一、二期国家人权行动计划的执行情况和实施经验的基础上,依据国家尊重和保障人权的宪法原则,遵循《世界人权宣言》和有关国际人权公约的精神,结合实施《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十三个五年规划纲要》,中国政府制定《国家人权行动计划(2016—2020年)》(以下简称《行动计划》),确定2016—2020年尊重、保护和促进人权的目标和任务。
  Based on experience gained in the implementation of the first and second national human rights action plans, the Chinese government has formulated the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2016-2020) (hereinafter referred to as the Action Plan) in accordance with the constitutional principle that the state respects and protects human rights and the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other related international human rights conventions, and in combination with the implementation of the Outline of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China. The Action Plan defines the objectives and tasks of respecting, protecting and promoting human rights in the period from 2016 to 2020.
  制定和实施《行动计划》的指导思想是:高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届三中、四中、五中全会精神,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,按照全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党的战略布局,坚持创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,坚持中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,将人权事业与经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设和党的建设结合起来,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,把保障人民的生存权和发展权放在首位,将增进人民福祉、促进人的全面发展作为人权事业发展的出发点和落脚点,维护社会公平正义,在实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的征程中,使全体人民的各项权利得到更高水平的保障。
  The guiding ideology for formulating and implementing the Action Plan is as follows:
  Upholding socialism with Chinese characteristics, fully implementing the guiding principles of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the third, fourth and fifth plenary sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee, following the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development, implementing the spirit of a series of important speeches made by General Secretary Xi Jinping, following the strategic arrangement of building China into a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, advancing reform in an all-round way, comprehensively promoting law-based government, and running the Party with strict discipline, and sticking to the innovative, coordinated, green, open and sharing development concept. The Chinese government combines human rights with economic, political, cultural and social progress, ecological protection and Party building, adheres to the people-centered development approach, puts the protection of people’s rights to subsistence and development in the first place, takes the people’s well-being and all-round development as both the starting point and ultimate goal of China’s human rights work, safeguards social fairness and justice, and better guarantees the various rights and interests of the entire population in the great cause of realizing the Chinese Dream of rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
  制定和实施《行动计划》的基本原则是:依法推进,将人权事业纳入法治轨道;协调推进,使各项权利全面协调发展;务实推进,把人权的普遍原则和中国实际相结合;平等推进,保障每个人都能平等享有各项人权;合力推进,政府、企事业单位、社会组织共同促进人权事业的发展。
  The basic principles for formulating and implementing the Action Plan are as follows:
  Pushing forward the work in accordance with the law and bringing China’s human rights work under the rule of law; pushing forward the work in a coordinated way, and promoting the comprehensive and coordinated development of the people’s various rights and interests; pushing forward the work in a pragmatic way, and integrating universal principles on human rights with China’s realities; pushing forward the work in a balanced way and making sure that all people enjoy equal human rights; pushing forward the work with joint efforts, with the government, enterprises, public institutions and social organizations working together to promote human rights.
  按照全面建成小康社会的新要求,实施《行动计划》的目标是:
  In accordance with the new requirement of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, the objectives of the implementation of the Action Plan are as follows:
  ——全面保障经济、社会和文化权利。普遍提升人民生活水平和质量;健全公共服务体系,提升服务均等化水平;全力实施脱贫攻坚,实现现行标准下的贫困人口全部脱贫;有效保护产权;总体改善生态环境质量;努力使发展机会更加公平,发展成果更加均等地惠及全民,使全体人民在共建共享发展中有更多获得感。
  – Comprehensively safeguarding citizens’ economic, social and cultural rights. The Chinese government will improve the people’s standard of living and quality of life; upgrade the public service system and ensure more people have equal access to such services; spare no effort in poverty alleviation to lift the entire population who live under the current poverty line out of poverty; protect intellectual property rights; improve the overall ecological environment; make efforts to give people equal opportunities in development, ensure that all people share the benefits of the nation’s development more equally, and increase the people’s sense of satisfaction in creating and sharing benefits.
  ——依法保障公民权利和政治权利。严格规范公正文明执法,维护公民的人身权利和人格尊严;提高公正司法水平,保障诉讼当事人获得公正审判的权利;健全社会主义民主政治,畅通、创新渠道,促进公民知情权、参与权、表达权和监督权充分实现。
  – Protecting citizens’ civil and political rights in accordance with the law. China will enforce the law in a strict, procedure-based manner, and protect citizens’ personal rights and dignity; promote judicial justice and guarantee litigants’ right to a fair trial; improve socialist democracy, clear and expand channels for citizens’ participation in political affairs, and ensure people’s rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard and to oversee.
  ——充分保障各类特定群体权利。加快少数民族和民族地区发展;努力消除性别歧视;强化对未成年人权益的保障;积极应对人口老龄化;健全扶残助残服务体系。
  – Fully safeguarding the rights and interests of specific groups. The Chinese government will promote the development of ethnic minorities and regions inhabited by ethnic minorities; endeavor to eliminate gender discrimination; strengthen the protection of rights and interests of minors; respond actively to the aging of the population; improve the service system to support and help people with disabilities.
  ——深入开展人权教育。将人权教育与国民教育、全民普法相结合;弘扬社会主义核心价值观的人权精神内涵,培育全社会尊重人权的文化。
  – Conducting extensive education in human rights. China will combine human rights education with national education and nationwide education in spreading knowledge of the law; publicize the importance of human rights as represented in the core socialist values, and foster a culture featuring respect for human rights.
  ——积极参与国际人权工作。认真履行人权条约义务,深入参与联合国人权机制工作;广泛开展人权对话、交流与合作,向有需要的发展中国家提供人权技术援助。
  – Actively participating in international human rights work. China will fulfill its obligations to international human rights conventions, get actively involved in the work of the United Nations human rights mechanism; conduct extensive human rights dialogues, exchanges and cooperation, and provide technical aid related to human rights to those developing countries that need it.
  《行动计划》由国务院新闻办公室和外交部牵头编制,经国家人权行动计划联席会议机制审核同意,现授权国务院新闻办公室发布《国家人权行动计划(2016—2020年)》。
  Compiled under the leadership of the State Council Information Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and reviewed and approved by the joint meeting for the National Human Rights Action Plan, the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2016-2020) is hereby released by the State Council Information Office.
  一、经济、社会和文化权利
  I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  推进精准扶贫脱贫,健全公共服务体系,稳步提高基本公共服务均等化水平,保障公民的经济、社会和文化权利。
  The Chinese government is determined to press forward with precision poverty-reduction and poverty-eradication campaigns, improve the public service system, steadily enhance the level of equal access to basic public services, and protect citizens’ economic, social and cultural rights.
  (一)工作权利
  (1) Right to work
  实施更加积极的就业政策,推行劳动者终身职业技能培训制度,进一步完善工资福利制度和安全生产长效机制,加强职业病防治。
  More proactive employment policies shall be implemented, a system of lifelong vocational skills training shall be promoted for workers, and a wage and benefits system shall be further improved, so shall a long-term safety production mechanism. Prevention and treatment of occupational diseases shall be reinforced.
  ——实现比较充分和高质量就业。实施高校毕业生就业促进和创业引领计划。促进农村富余劳动力转移就业和外出务工人员返乡创业。对就业困难人员实行实名制动态管理和分类帮扶,做好“零就业”家庭帮扶工作。支持贫困地区建设县乡基层劳动就业和社会保障服务平台。实现城镇新增就业5000万人以上。
  – Ensuring a fuller rate of employment and quality employment. Programs of employment promotion and entrepreneurship shall be introduced for college graduates, and surplus rural labor shall be encouraged to seek employment in other areas, and migrant workers shall get help in starting businesses back in their home villages. People with difficulties in finding jobs shall be registered so that the government can keep track of their employment situation and give them help according to defined categories, with particular attention being paid to families with no one holding a job. Counties and townships in poverty-stricken areas shall be given support in building employment and social security services platforms. It is planned for a minimum of 50 million new jobs to be created in urban areas.
  ——推行劳动者终身职业技能培训制度。开展贫困家庭子女、未升学初高中毕业生、农民工、失业人员和转岗职工、退役军人和残疾人免费接受职业培训行动。到2020年,累计培训农民工4000万人次,基本消除劳动者无技能从业现象。
  – Pursuing a lifelong vocational skills training system for workers. Free vocational training shall be offered to young people from needy families, people with junior or senior middle-school education, migrant workers, people having lost their jobs, workers with reassigned jobs, ex-service people and people with disabilities. By 2020, it is expected that 40 million migrant workers shall have received such training, and the goal is to equip every worker with relevant occupational skills.
  ——进一步完善工资福利制度。健全工资水平决定机制、正常增长机制和支付保障机制,健全最低工资标准调整机制。继续推行企业工资集体协商制度。健全高技能人才薪酬体系,提高技术工人待遇,落实带薪年休假制度。
  – Further improving the wage and benefits system. Efforts will be made to improve the wage-setting mechanism, the normal wage increase mechanism and payment guarantee mechanism, and the minimum wage adjustment mechanism. The collective wage negotiation mechanism shall be continuously implemented for enterprises; a salary system shall be improved for highly skilled professionals, the salaries of skilled workers be increased, and the paid vacation system be implemented.
  ——完善劳动保障监察执法体制和劳动人事争议处理机制。严禁各种形式的就业歧视,全面治理拖欠农民工工资问题,规范企业裁员行为,保障非正规就业劳动者权益,严格规范企业实行特殊工时制度的适用管理,依法加强对劳务派遣的监管。
  – Improving the labor security supervision and law enforcement system and labor dispute settlement mechanism. Employment discrimination of any form shall be strictly prohibited. Measures will be taken to address arrears of wage payment for migrant workers, regulate layoffs by businesses, guarantee the rights and interests of workers informally employed, strictly regularize the application by enterprises of the special working-hour system, and strengthen supervision over labor dispatch pursuant to the law.
  ——加强安全生产防控。到2020年,各类生产安全事故死亡人数累计降幅10%,亿元国内生产总值生产安全事故死亡率累计降幅30%。
  – Strengthening safety in production. By 2020, the death toll caused by industrial accidents of various types shall fall by 10 percent cumulatively, and the death rate from industrial accidents per RMB100 million of GDP shall drop by 30 percent.
  ——加强职业病防治。职业病危害严重的行业领域劳动者在岗期间的职业健康检查率达90%以上,用人单位主要负责人和职业卫生管理人员的职业卫生培训率分别达95%以上。
  – Strengthening the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases. In industries with high risks of occupational diseases, 90 percent and above of relevant workers shall receive special health checkups, and 95 percent and above of persons in charge of businesses and occupational health managerial staff shall receive the required training.
  (二)基本生活水准权利
  (2) Right to basic living standards
  全力实施脱贫攻坚,保障居民基本住房、用水、食品安全和出行便利。
  Full efforts shall be made to reduce poverty, and ensure basic housing, clean water, food security, and convenient transportation.
  ——确保城乡居民收入增长与经济增长同步。到2020年国内生产总值和城乡居民人均收入比2010年翻一番。努力增加低收入劳动者收入,扩大中等收入者比重。
  – Ensuring the increase of rural and urban residents’ income in step with economic growth. By 2020, China’s GDP and the per-capita income of urban and rural residents shall both double that of 2010. Efforts shall be made to increase the income of low-income earners, and enlarge the ranks of middle-income earners.
  ——贯彻落实《中共中央国务院关于打赢脱贫攻坚战的决定》,实施精准扶贫精准脱贫方略。到2020年,实现特色产业脱贫3000万人,转移就业脱贫1000万人,实施易地扶贫搬迁1000万人,对其余完全或部分丧失劳动能力的贫困人口实行社保政策兜底脱贫2000万人。实现现行标准下的农村贫困人口全部脱贫,贫困县全部摘帽。
  – Implementing the Decision of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Eradicating Poverty in China, and implementing the strategy of precision poverty-reduction and poverty-eradication. By 2020, some 30 million people shall be lifted out of poverty by way of developing specialty industries, 10 million by way of transfer employment, 10 million by relocation to other areas, and the remaining 20 million, who have partially or completely lost the ability to work, shall be covered by social security. In this way the whole of the impoverished rural population according to the current standards shall be lifted out of poverty and no county will be called a “poverty county” by then.
  ——保障住房安全。改造各类城镇棚户区住房2000万套,加强对贫困地区的支持,推动居住证持有人享有与当地户籍人口同等的住房保障权利。推进农村危房改造,统筹开展农房抗震改造,基本完成存量危房改造任务。
  – Ensuring housing security. A total of 20 million units of housing in rundown urban areas shall be rebuilt, support strengthened to poor areas, and holders of residence permits ensured equal basic housing rights with locally registered residents. Efforts shall be made to press forward with renovation of dilapidated housing in rural areas, carry out anti-earthquake reinforcement projects for rural housing, and basically complete the renovation of registered dilapidated housing.
  ——保障用水安全。全国新增供水能力270亿立方米,城镇供水水源地水质全面达标。实施农村饮水安全巩固提升工程,农村自来水普及率达80%以上,农村集中供水率达85%以上。
  – Ensuring access to safe water. A total of 27 billion cu m of water supply capacity will be added nationwide on the current basis, and all urban water-supply sources shall meet the required standards. Efforts shall be made to improve drinking water security in rural areas, where 80 percent of the population shall have access to tap water, and 85 percent to centralized water supply.
  ——确保食品安全。深入贯彻实施食品安全法,全面落实食品安全属地监管责任。加强进口食品安全监管。实施科学监管,建立职业化检查员队伍。健全食品安全信用体系,完善消费者权益保护机制。
  – Ensuring food safety. The Food Safety Law shall be strictly enforced, and supervisory organs shall be held responsible for food safety in areas under their respective jurisdiction. Food safety supervision shall be strengthened on imported foodstuffs, and through the building of a professional team of food-safety inspectors, the supervision shall be made more effective. The system of food-safety credit shall be improved, so shall the mechanisms of protection of consumers’ rights and interests.
  ——改善城乡居民出行条件。国家高速公路主线基本贯通。具备条件的县城通二级及以上公路,乡镇和建制村通硬化路、通客车。
  – Improving the transportation network. A network of national trunk expressways shall be basically put in place. Where conditions permit, county seats shall have access to highways of Grade II and above, and townships and administrative villages have tarmac or cement roads and complete access to bus services.
  (三)社会保障权利
  (3) Right to social security
  完善社会保险体系,推进城乡社会救助体系建设,支持社会福利和慈善事业发展。
  The social insurance system shall be improved, establishment of a social relief system covering urban and rural areas shall be promoted, and support shall be given to the development of social welfare and charity undertakings.
  ——实施全民参保计划,稳步提高社会保障统筹层次和水平。建立更加便捷的社会保险转移接续机制。实施社会保障卡工程,持卡人口覆盖率达到90%。
  – Implementing full coverage of social insurance, and steadily raising the level of social security pooling. A more convenient social insurance transfer and renewal mechanism shall be established, and the system of social security card shall be implemented to ensure that 90 percent of the population enjoys social security coverage.
  ——完善统账结合的城镇职工基本养老保险制度,实现职工基础养老金全国统筹,推出税收递延型养老保险。到2020年,符合参保条件的城乡居民参保率达到95%。
  – Improving the basic old-age insurance system that combines social pooling and personal accounts for urban workers and endeavoring to materialize nationwide pooling for basic old-age pensions for urban workers, and introducing tax-deferred retirement insurance. By 2020, some 95 percent of eligible urban and rural residents shall be covered by the basic old-age insurance.
  ——健全医疗保险制度。城乡医保参保率稳定在95%以上。全面实施城乡居民大病保险制度。健全医疗保险稳定可持续筹资和报销比例调整机制。加快推进基本医保全国联网和异地就医结算,实现符合转诊规定的异地就医住院费用直接结算。将生育保险和基本医疗保险合并实施。
  – Improving the medical insurance system. The coverage of medical insurance in urban and rural areas shall be stabilized at above 95 percent. A critical illness insurance system shall be continuously carried out for urban and rural residents, and mechanisms for steady and sustainable financing of the medical insurance and for adjusting medical care reimbursement rates shall be improved. Steps shall be quickened to promote the establishment of a nationwide network for basic medical insurance and trans-regional settlement of medical insurance accounts, so in-patient and out-patient medical expenses can be settled in the place of treatment if the patients meet the requirements for referral, despite having local coverage. The state shall integrate maternity insurance with basic medical insurance.
  ——继续扩大失业保险覆盖面,确保为符合条件的失业人员按时足额发放失业保险金并提供相关的再就业服务。
  – Further expanding the coverage of unemployment insurance, and ensuring that eligible unemployed persons receive unemployment insurance benefits in full and in a timely manner, and that they have access to relevant re-employment services.
  ——全面实施工伤保险省级统筹,强化工伤保险待遇支付保障,制定工伤预防费使用管理办法,完善工伤康复服务体系。到2020年,基本实现工伤保险法定人群全覆盖。
  – Implementing provincial-level unified pooling of funds for work-related injury insurance, guaranteeing that the insured receive compensation when applicable, formulating regulations on the use and management of funds for prevention of work-related injury, and improving the system of rehabilitation services for work-related injuries. By 2020, work-related injury insurance shall be extended to cover all eligible workers as prescribed by the law.
  ——统筹推进城乡社会救助体系建设。将所有符合低保条件的贫困家庭纳入低保范围。进一步健全特困人员救助供养制度,提升特困人员救助供养水平。全面实施临时救助制度,全面推开“救急难”工作。加强基层未成年人保护服务设施和流浪乞讨救助管理机构建设。
  – Pressing forward in coordinated manner the building of an urban-rural social relief system. All eligible families shall be brought into the coverage of the subsistence allowance system. The relief and support system for people living in dire poverty shall be further improved and the level of relief and support shall be raised. The system of temporary rescue shall be comprehensively implemented to provide timely help to those in urgent needs. Building of service facilities for the protection of minors shall be strengthened, so shall organs for the relief and management of vagrants and beggars, both at the grassroots.
  ——健全自然灾害救助体系,调整完善自然灾害生活救助政策,实施全国自然灾害救助物资储备体系建设等重大项目。
  – Improving the natural disaster relief system, and adjusting and improving the relief policies in the wake of natural disasters. A national natural-disaster relief supplies reserve system shall be launched.
  ——健全以扶老、助残、爱幼、济困为重点的社会福利制度,加强福利设施建设。
  – Improving the social welfare system with focus on supporting the elderly, disabled, children, and needy, and strengthening the building of welfare facilities.
  ——实施慈善法,支持慈善事业发展。
  – Enacting the Charity Law, and supporting the development of charities.
  ——落实国务院户籍制度改革方案,取消农业户口与非农业户口性质区分,建立城乡统一的户籍登记制度。全面实施居住证暂行条例,推进居住证制度覆盖全部未落户城镇常住人口。促进公民平等发展、共享成果,享受均等化的社会保障。
  – Implementing the State Council’s reform program of the household registration system, and establishing a unified urban-rural household registration system featuring the removal of difference between agricultural and non-agricultural household registration. The Interim Regulations on Residence Permits shall be implemented, and the system of residence permit shall be extended to cover all permanent urban residents that have not yet had their household registration. Equal development shall be promoted for citizens, making them share the benefits of development equally and have equal access to social security.
  (四)财产权利
  (4) Right to property
  健全归属清晰、权责明确、保护严格、流转顺畅的现代产权制度,推进产权保护法治化。
  Establishing and improving a modern property-right system featuring clear ownership, clearly defined rights and obligations, rigorous protection, and easy transfer, and pressing forward with protection of people’s property rights in accordance with the law.
  ——有序推进民法典编纂工作,完善财产保障制度。
  – Forging ahead with the compilation of the Civil Law Code in an orderly manner and improving the system of property protection.
  ——推动土地管理法修改及其配套法规立法工作。对农村集体所有土地征收、集体经营性建设用地入市、宅基地管理、不动产权属调处等制度进行积极探索,适时开展立法研究工作。
  – Pressing forward with the amendment of the Land Administration Law and enactment of supporting laws and regulations. Proactive exploration shall be conducted on such systems as expropriation of rural collectively owned land, marketization of collectively owned rural profit-oriented construction land, management of homestead land, and the adjustment and handling of real estate ownership, and studies on legislation be started at the right time.
  ——完成农村承包经营地、宅基地、农房、集体建设用地确权登记颁证。继续落实征地制度改革工作。稳定农村土地承包关系,完善土地所有权、承包权、经营权分置办法,依法推进土地经营权有序流转。完善集体经济组织成员认定办法和集体经济资产所有权实现形式,将经营性资产折股量化到本集体经济组织成员。
  – Completing the confirmation and registration of rural land contracted for productive use, homesteads, housing and collectively owned construction land. Reform of the land expropriation system shall be implemented continuously, the land-contracting relationship shall be made stable in the rural areas, measures for separating the rights of land ownership, contracting and management shall be improved, and orderly transfer of land-management right shall be introduced pursuant to the law. Methods for confirming membership of collective economic organizations shall be improved, and so shall the forms of expression of collective economic assets ownership. The productive assets of collective economic organizations shall be converted into shares for distribution among their members.
  ——依法合规界定企业财产权归属,保障企业的自主经营权。
  – Defining the property right of enterprises in accordance with laws and regulations, and ensuring enterprises’ right of operation.
  ——全面落实不动产统一登记制度。
  – Implementing unified system of registration for immovables.
  ——加快构建自然资源资产产权制度,确定产权主体,创新产权实现形式。保护自然资源资产所有者权益,公平分享自然资源资产收益。深化矿业权制度改革。建立健全生态环境性权益交易制度和平台。
  – Taking steps to quicken the enactment of a natural resource assets ownership system, deciding the owners of such assets, and innovating the forms of realizing the ownership. The rights and interests of the owners of natural-resource assets shall be protected, and proceeds from such assets shall be shared fairly. Further reform shall be carried out of the mining right system, and a system and platform shall be established for trading of ecological and environmental rights and interests.
  ——实施严格的知识产权保护制度。完善有利于激励创新的知识产权归属制度,建设知识产权运营交易和服务平台。
  – Implementing a rigorous intellectual property right (IPR) protection system. The IPR ownership system shall be improved to encourage innovation, and an IPR trading and services platform shall be built.
  (五)健康权利
  (5) Right to health
  建立健全覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度,到2020年,实现人均预期寿命增加1岁。
  A basic medical and health system covering the entire nation shall be established and improved, and it is expected that the average life expectancy shall increase by one year by 2020.
  ——促进基本公共卫生服务均等化。完善国家基本公共卫生服务项目和重大公共卫生服务项目,提高服务质量效率和均等化水平,适时调整基本公共卫生服务项目经费标准,项目经费继续向基层倾斜。鼓励社会力量兴办健康服务业,推进非营利性民营医院和公立医院同等待遇。
  – Promoting equal access to basic public health services. Improvements shall be endeavored of the basic public health service programs and key public health service programs, the quality and efficiency of health services shall be improved and equal access to them ensured, and adjustments made to the funds for basic public health service programs at the right time while continuing to give preference to primary-level health services when it comes to the allocation of funding. Private capital shall be encouraged to go to health services, and equal treatment be offered to non-profit private hospitals as well as public hospitals.
  ——提升基层医疗卫生服务能力。以中西部地区为重点,每县重点办好1-2所县级公立医院(含县中医院),基层医疗卫生机构标准化建设达标率达95%以上。打造30分钟基层医疗服务圈。加强并规范化培养住院医师,每万人口全科医生数达到2名,每千人口执业(助理)医师数达到2.5名。
  – Enhancing the capacity of primary-level medical and health services. Focusing on the central and western regions, each county shall be helped to run well at least one to two public hospitals (including hospitals of Traditional Chinese Medicine), and 95 percent of primary-level medical and health institutions shall be expected to reach the required standards. Endeavors shall be made to develop a primary-level medical care sphere that ensures all patients receive help within 30 minutes. A contingent of resident doctors shall be developed and offered standardized training. Two general practitioners shall be ensured for every 10,000 persons and 2.5 practitioners/assistants for every 1,000 persons.
  ——加强重大疾病防控。加快推进国家和省级慢性病综合防控示范区建设,重大慢性病过早死亡率降低10%。肺结核发病率降至58/10万。降低全人群乙肝病毒感染率,控制艾滋病疫情在低流行水平,基本消除血吸虫病危害,消除疟疾、麻风病危害。加强严重精神障碍诊断报告、随访管理服务,严重精神障碍患者管理率达到85%。做好重点地方病防控工作,强化突发公共事件卫生应急和突发急性传染病防治能力建设。加强口岸卫生检疫能力建设,严防外来重大传染病传入。增加艾滋病防治等特殊药物免费供给。全面开展重特大疾病医疗救助。
  – Strengthening prevention and control of major illnesses. Intensified efforts shall be made to accelerate the building of national- and provincial-level demonstration areas for chronic disease prevention and control, and the rate of premature deaths from major chronic diseases shall be reduced by 10 percent. The incidence of TB shall be reduced to 58/100,000; the infection rates of HBV in all groups be reduced; AIDS be controlled at a low-epidemic level; schistosomiasis be basically eliminated; and malaria and leprosy be eliminated. China shall improve the diagnosis, reporting and follow-up service of serious mental disorders, and register 85 percent of persons with serious mental disorders for health management. Primary attention shall be given to the prevention and control of endemic diseases, improving the capabilities of public health emergency response and the prevention and treatment of acute infectious disease epidemics. Health quarantine capacity of land border crossings and sea ports shall be strengthened to prevent the spread of major infectious diseases from outside China. The supply of medicines for the prevention and control of AIDS and some other diseases shall be increased free of charge, and medical relief shall be provided for all those suffering from severe or major illnesses.
  ——保障用药安全。完善基本药物制度,健全药品供应保障机制。健全药品检查、检验检测体系,加强药品不良反应监测。
  – Ensuring medication safety. The system of basic medicines shall be improved, so shall the mechanism of medicine supply and system of drug inspection and testing, as well as the monitoring of adverse effects of drugs.
  ——落实《全民健身计划(2016—2020年)》。推动城市社区15分钟健身圈建设,实现基本公共体育服务乡镇常住人口全覆盖和行政村农民体育健身工程全覆盖。到2020年,每周参加1次及以上体育锻炼的人数达到7亿,经常参加体育锻炼的人数达到4.35亿,全国人均体育场地面积达到1.8平方米以上。
  – Implementing the National Fitness Program (2016-2020). Fitness facilities shall be made accessible to urban communities within a 15-minute radius, and permanent residents in rural towns and townships shall be ensured access to basic public sports services and farmers in rural administrative villages shall be guaranteed access to sports and fitness facilities. By 2020, some 700 million people shall take part in physical exercises at least once a week, and 435 million people shall do it on a regular basis, with per-capita sports or exercise area being 1.8 sq m or more.
  (六)受教育权
  (6) Right to education
  实施《国家教育事业发展第十三个五年规划》,全面提升教育质量,促进教育公平。到2020年,劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限达到10.8年。
  The 13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Education (2016-2020) shall be implemented, the quality of education be enhanced comprehensively and equality in education be promoted. By 2020, the average years of schooling for the working-age population shall reach 10.8 years.
  ——普及学前三年教育。扩大普惠性学前教育资源,学前三年毛入园率提高到85%。继续加大对中西部地区和薄弱环节的支持力度,基本建成覆盖城乡、布局合理的学前教育公共服务体系。
  – Making three-year pre-school education universal. Pre-school educational resources bringing universal benefits shall be expanded, and 85 percent of eligible children shall be enrolled in kindergartens. The support to the central and western regions and to weak links shall be strengthened, and a well-balanced network of pre-school education public service that covers both urban and rural areas shall be established.
  ——促进义务教育均衡优质发展。加快推进城乡义务教育一体化进程,加快义务教育公办学校标准化建设。全面改善贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校基本办学条件。着力保障随迁子女在流入地平等接受义务教育。完善留守儿童教育服务体系。
  – Promoting balanced and high-quality development of compulsory education. Urban-rural integration of compulsory education shall be accelerated, so shall the standardized construction of public schools of compulsory education. The conditions of disadvantaged schools of compulsory education in poverty-ridden areas shall be improved overall. Greater attention shall be paid to ensure equal access to compulsory education at local schools for the children of migrant workers. The system of education service for children left behind by their migrant-worker parents shall be improved.
  ——普及高中阶段教育。促进普通高中多样化发展。继续加大对中西部贫困地区高中阶段教育的扶持力度。对建档立卡的家庭经济困难学生实施普通高中免除学杂费。到2020年,全国高中阶段教育毛入学率达到90%。
  – Making senior high school education universal. Diversified development shall be encouraged of general high schools. Support shall be continuously enhanced to the development of senior high school education in poverty-stricken areas of central and western China. Students from families with financial difficulties shall be exempt from tuition and other fees during senior high school. By 2020, some 90 percent of junior high school students shall enter senior high schools.
  ——完善职业教育体系和制度建设。修改职业教育法。推动产教融合发展,完善校企合作制度。完善职业教育人才多样化成长渠道。支持欠发达地区职业教育发展。逐步分类推进中等职业教育免除学杂费。实施国家基本职业培训包制度。
  – Improving the vocational education system. The Vocational Education Law shall be amended. Integrated development of industry and education shall be promoted, and the system of cooperation between schools and enterprises shall be improved. So shall the diversified channels conducive to the development of students receiving vocational education. Support shall be extended to the development of vocational education in less-developed areas. A program shall be implemented gradually and by category to exempt students receiving secondary vocational education from tuition and other fees. A national basic vocational training package shall be implemented.
  ——促进高等教育发展。实施高等学校创新能力提升计划。深入实施中西部高等教育振兴计划,扩大重点高校对中西部和农村地区招生规模。
  – Boosting higher education. A program shall be implemented to enhance the innovation capacity of institutions of higher learning. So shall a program for rejuvenation of higher education of central and western regions, and key institutions of higher learning shall be made to enlarge their enrollments in central and western China, and rural areas.
  ——大力发展继续教育。建立个人学习账号和学分累计制度,畅通继续教育、终身学习通道。支持各类高校、企事业单位和各类教育培训机构开展继续教育。
  – Making great efforts to develop continuing education. A personal education account and number of credits system shall be established, and the channels for continuing education and lifelong education shall be expanded. Institutions of higher learning, enterprises and public institutions, and various agencies providing educational training are encouraged to engage in continuing education.
  ——加强农村教师队伍建设。推动有关地方在连片特困地区实现乡村教师生活补助全覆盖,依据学校艰苦边远程度实行差别化的补助标准。推动各地逐步实行城乡统一的中小学教职工编制标准。推进城乡教师交流。加大对中西部乡村教师的培训。
  – Improving the training of teachers in rural areas. Life subsidies shall be provided to all teachers working in rural areas hit hard by poverty, and differentiated amounts of subsidies shall be implemented on the basis of the location and degree of poverty where the teachers work. Unified standards shall be adopted for faculty and staff of elementary and high schools in both urban and rural areas. So shall the exchange of teachers working in urban and rural areas. Greater efforts shall be made in training of teachers working in rural areas of central and western China.
  ——健全国家资助政策体系,实现家庭经济困难学生资助全覆盖。
  – Improving state financial aid policies, and ensuring full coverage of financial aid to students with economic difficulties.
  (七)文化权利
  (7) Cultural rights
  实施《国家“十三五”时期文化改革发展规划纲要》,完善公共文化服务体系、文化产业体系、文化市场体系,提升公民基本文化权利的保障水平。
  The Outline of the National Plan for Cultural Reform and Development of the 13th Five-Year Plan Period (2016-2020) shall be implemented, and the public cultural services shall be improved, so shall the cultural industry and cultural market, to ensure citizens’ basic cultural rights.
  ——加快推进公共图书馆法、文化产业促进法、公共文化服务保障法、电影产业促进法立法。修订文物保护法、著作权法及其配套行政法规。
  – Quickening the pace of enactment of laws on public libraries, the promotion of the cultural industry, the provision of public cultural services, and promotion of the movie industry. The Law on the Protection of Cultural Relics, the Copyright Law and supporting administrative regulations shall be amended.
  ——推进基本公共文化服务标准化、均等化。完善公共文化设施网络,加强基层文化服务能力建设。加大对老少边穷地区文化建设帮扶力度。加快公共数字文化建设。加强文化产品、惠民服务与群众文化需求对接。鼓励社会力量参与公共文化服务。继续推进公共文化设施免费开放。
  – Promoting the standardization of and equal access to basic public cultural services. The public cultural facilities network shall keep to be improved, and the building of primary-level cultural service capacity shall be strengthened. Support shall be strengthened for cultural development in former revolutionary base areas, ethnic-minority areas, border areas and impoverished areas. Public digital culture development shall be accelerated. Cultural products and services should suit the public’s cultural needs. All social sectors are encouraged to take part in the provision of public cultural services. Free access to public cultural installations shall be further encouraged.
  ——促进新兴文化产业发展,推进文化业态创新,大力发展创意文化产业。完善文化市场准入和退出机制,促进文化资源在全国范围内流动。
  – Promoting the development of emerging cultural industries. Innovation shall be encouraged in the forms of cultural operations, and great efforts shall be made to boost the development of creative culture. The cultural market entry-and-exit mechanism shall be improved, and the cultural resources shall be encouraged to flow nationwide.
  ——构建中华优秀传统文化传承体系。加强对国家重大文化和自然遗产地、大遗址、重点文物保护单位、历史文化名城名镇名村的保护建设,加大对非国有博物馆的政策扶持力度。推进国家非物质文化遗产保护利用设施建设工程和代表性传承人抢救性记录工程,实施国家非物质文化遗产传承人群研修研习培训计划。振兴传统工艺。实施中华典籍整理工程。
  – Establishing a dissemination system of China’s fine cultural traditions. Protection and development of key state cultural and natural heritage sites, major ruins, key cultural relics protection units, and historic and cultural cities, towns and villages shall be strengthened, and so shall policy support to non-state-owned museums. Efforts shall be made to press forward with the building of facilities for protecting and utilizing state intangible cultural heritages, and implement a research and training program for the inheritors of intangible cultural heritages. Traditional craftsmanship shall be further developed, and the project to collate Chinese classics and records shall be launched.
  ——全面实施全民阅读工程。
  – Launching a nationwide reading project.
  ——加强互联网与网络文化建设。城镇地区实现光网覆盖,提供1000兆比特每秒以上接入服务能力,大中城市家庭用户带宽实现100兆比特每秒以上灵活选择;98%的行政村实现光纤通达,有条件地区提供100兆比特每秒以上接入服务能力,半数以上农村家庭用户带宽实现50兆比特每秒以上灵活选择。实施网络内容建设工程,支持传统出版资源加快数字化转化,提高知识服务能力,鼓励推出优秀网络原创作品。
  – Strengthening the development of the Internet and cyber culture. Fiber-optic networks shall cover all urban areas and provide a connection capacity of 1,000 Mbps, allowing home users of the Internet in medium-sized and large cities to choose from a variety of plans with speeds above 100 Mbps; fiber-optic networks shall cover 98 percent of rural administrative villages, an Internet connection capacity of 100 Mbps shall be available for areas where conditions allow, allowing more than half of rural home users to choose from a variety of plans with speeds above 50 Mbps. An Internet content development project shall be implemented, support shall be extended to the digitalization of traditional publishing resources, the knowledge-services capacity shall be enhanced, and encouragement shall be given to the creation of outstanding original works on the Internet.
  (八)环境权利
  (8) Environmental rights
  实行最严格的环境保护制度,形成政府、企业、公众共治的环境治理体系,着力解决大气、水、土壤等突出环境问题,实现环境质量总体改善。
  Implementing the strictest possible system of environmental protection, forming an environmental-governance system involving the government, enterprises and the general public, and striving to address such pressing environmental problems as air, water and soil pollution, so as to strive for an overall improvement of the environment.
  ——切实落实环境保护法和大气污染防治法,完善环境公益诉讼等配套制度。有序推进水污染防治法、土壤污染防治法、核安全法等立法规划项目进程。
  – Effectively implementing the Law on Environmental Protection and the Law on Atmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control, and improving environmental public interest litigation and other supporting mechanisms. The pace of legislation for water and soil pollution prevention and control, and nuclear safety shall be promoted in an orderly manner.
  ——坚持不懈治理大气污染。到2020年,地级以上城市空气质量优良天数比率超过80%,细颗粒物(PM2.5)未达标地级以上城市浓度下降18%,二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放总量减少15%。
  – Sparing no effort to curb air pollution. By 2020 the ratio of days with good air quality in cities above the prefecture level shall exceed 80 percent, the density of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in such cities that have not yet met the required standards shall drop by 18 percent, and the total emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides shall drop by 15 percent.
  ——强化水污染防治。加大水源地污染治理和流域水污染防治,筛选七大流域优控污染物清单。到2020年,达到或好于Ⅲ类水体比例超过70%,劣Ⅴ类水体比例小于5%,地级以上城市建成区黑臭水体控制在10%以内。化学需氧量、氨氮排放总量减少10%。地下水超采得到严格控制。
  – Strengthening water pollution prevention and control. Efforts shall be intensified for pollution prevention and control in water-head areas and river basins, and a list of priority pollutants shall be screened and established for the country’s seven major river basins. By 2020, bodies of water at or above the Grade-III level shall surpass 70 percent, with bodies of water at the Grade-V level reduced to 5 percent or less, and black and odorous bodies of water in built-up areas of cities above the prefecture level shall be limited to 10 percent or less. The chemical oxygen demand amount and total emission of ammonia nitrogen shall drop by 10 percent, and excessive exploitation of groundwater shall be brought under strict control.
  ——制定实施土壤污染防治行动计划。到2020年,完成200个土壤污染治理与修复技术应用试点项目。建设6个土壤污染综合防治先行区,受污染耕地治理与修复面积达到1000万亩,轻度和中度污染耕地实现安全利用的面积达到4000万亩。
  – Formulating and implementing the Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. By 2020, 200 pilot programs shall be completed for the application of soil-pollution control and remedy technologies; six pilot areas of soil-pollution prevention and control shall be built; and area of polluted farmland treated and restored shall reach 10 million mu (less than 700,000 ha), with the area of lightly and moderately polluted farmland treated for safe utilization being 40 million mu (less than 3 million ha).
  ——加强危险废物污染防治。开展危险废物专项整治。加大重点区域、有色等重点行业重金属污染防治力度。加强有毒有害化学物质环境和健康风险评估能力建设。推进核设施安全改进和放射性污染防治,强化核与辐射安全监管体系和监管能力建设。
  – Improving hazardous waste pollution prevention and control. Special programs shall be carried out in hazardous waste pollution control, and efforts shall be intensified for the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution in key areas and key industries such as non-ferrous metals. Capacity building shall be strengthened in environment and health risk assessment of toxic and harmful chemicals. Further efforts shall be made to promote the security improvement of nuclear facilities and prevention and control of radioactive contamination, and strengthen the security supervision system and capacity of nuclear and radioactive materials.
  ——加强海洋资源环境保护。严格控制围填海规模,加强海岸带保护与修复,自然岸线保有率不低于35%。实施陆源污染物达标排海和排污总量控制制度,建立海洋资源环境承载力预警机制。严格控制捕捞强度。加强海洋生态珍稀物种保护。实施海洋督查制度。
  – Improving the protection of marine resources and environment. Strict control shall be enforced on the scale of sea reclamation, and protection and restoration of coastal belts, seeing to it that at least 35 percent of the country’ s shorelines remain in their natural conditions. A system shall be implemented under which terrigenous pollutants shall be treated and meet required standards before they are discharged into the sea and the total amount of waste discharge shall be capped. An early-warning mechanism shall be established in relation to marine resources and environment carrying capacity. Strict control shall be imposed on fishing intensity; protection of rare marine species shall be enhanced; and a marine supervision mechanism shall be implemented.
  ——推动能源结构优化升级。到2020年,单位GDP能源消耗降低15%,万元GDP用水量下降23%,非化石能源占一次能源消费比重达15%,单位GDP二氧化碳排放降低18%。
  – Promoting the improvement and upgrading of the energy structure. By 2020, the energy consumption per unit of GDP shall drop by 15 percent, water usage per RMB10,000 of GDP shall drop by 23 percent, non-fossil energy resources shall make up 15 percent of primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission per unit of GDP shall decrease by 18 percent.
  ——推进生态建设。加快生态保护红线划定,推动建立重点生态功能区产业准入负面清单制度。到2020年,森林覆盖率提高到23%以上,湿地保有量稳定在8亿亩,自然保护地占国有面积稳定在17%以上,新增沙化土地治理面积1000万公顷,新增水土流失综合治理面积27万平方公里,国家森林城市达到200个,全国80%以上的行政村居民点绿化覆盖率达25%以上。健全国门生物安全查验机制,防范动植物疫情疫病跨境传播和外来物种入侵。
  – Promoting ecological conservation. The pace of delimiting the “red lines” for ecological conservation shall be accelerated, and efforts shall be made to forge ahead with the establishment of a negative list of industries that are not allowed in key eco-function zones. By 2020, the country’s forest coverage shall be raised to 23 percent of its land; the wetland inventory shall be stabilized at 800 million mu (over 53 million ha); and nature reserves shall remain steady at 17 percent of the country’s total land area, in addition to another 10 million ha of improved desert land and another 270,000 sq km of land of which soil erosion control has been completed. In addition, the number of national “forest cities” shall increase to 200, and the ratio of green land shall reach 25 percent in over 80 percent of the administrative villages nationwide. A bio-safety inspection mechanism shall be set up at land and sea ports to prevent the spread of plant and animal epidemics and diseases across borders, as well as invasion by alien species.
  ——完善环境监察体制机制。推行全流域、跨区域联防联控和城乡协同治理模式。建立健全排污权有偿使用和交易制度。建立企业环境信用记录和违法排污黑名单制度。健全生态环境损害赔偿制度。
  – Improving environmental monitoring and supervision mechanisms. A trans-regional governance model shall be enforced for joint environmental prevention and control that covers all river basins and integrates urban and rural efforts. A system for paid use and trading of emission rights shall be established. So shall a system of environmental credit records for enterprises and a blacklist system of illegal waste discharge. The environmental damage compensation system shall be improved.
  二、公民权利和政治权利
  II. Civil and Political Rights
  深入推进依法行政,加强人权司法保障,扩大公民有序政治参与,切实保障公民权利和政治权利。
  Law-based governance shall be advanced, judicial protection of human rights strengthened and orderly civil participation in political affairs expanded to effectively protect the people’ s civil and political rights.
  (一)人身权利
  (1) Rights of the person
  规范涉及公民人身的执法行为和司法行为。采取措施防范刑讯逼供。规范监管场所,保障各类被限制人身自由人员的权利。
  Acts of law enforcement and judicature touching on the rights of the person shall be standardized. Measures shall be taken to prevent extorting confessions by torture. Places of surveillance shall be regularized to protect the rights of people whose personal freedom is subject to restriction.
  ——完善行政组织和行政程序法律制度。行政机关不得法外设定权力,没有宪法法律依据不得作出限制公民人身自由的强制措施和处罚。
  – Improving laws and regulations concerning administrative bodies and procedures. Administrative bodies shall not extend their power beyond the law, and not impose any coercive measure or punishment that restrict personal freedom in the absence of constitutional basis or legal basis.
  ——完善执法程序。建立执法全过程记录制度,完善对涉及公民人身权利的行政强制措施实行司法监督的制度。
  – Improving law enforcement procedures. A system of archiving shall be established of the entire law-enforcement process, and the system of judicial supervision shall be improved over coercive administrative measures involving rights of the person.
  ——完善对限制人身自由司法措施和侦查手段的司法监督。加强对刑讯逼供和非法取证的源头预防,健全冤假错案的有效防范、及时纠正机制。落实讯问犯罪嫌疑人全程同步录音录像制度,并逐步扩大其适用的案件范围,试行重大案件全程同步录音录像随案移送制度。
  – Improving judicial oversight over judicial and investigation means that restrict personal freedom. Efforts shall be strengthened to prevent at source interrogation by torture and illegal collection of evidence, and improve the mechanism for preventing and redressing unjust, false and erroneous cases in a timely manner. The system of synchronous video and audio recording shall be implemented for the entire process of questioning criminal suspects, while the scope of its application being gradually expanded. Trial implementation shall be made of the system of transferring major cases together with the relevant synchronous video and audio recordings.
  ——完善侦查阶段听取律师意见的相关机制。犯罪嫌疑人委托的律师提出不构成犯罪、无逮捕必要、不适宜羁押、侦查活动有违法犯罪情形等书面意见以及相关证据材料的,检察人员应当在审查逮捕意见书中说明是否采纳律师意见的情况和理由。
  – Improving the mechanism of consulting lawyers at the stage of investigation. Where the defense lawyer entrusted by a criminal suspect provides written opinions, materials and evidence that prove the suspect’s acts do not constitute a crime, arrest is unnecessary, detention is unsuitable or investigation is illegal, the procurator shall state clearly in the relevant written report on investigation and arrest the conditions and reasons for whether or not adopting the lawyer’s opinions.
  ——严格执行指定居所监视居住制度。严格把握适用标准、适用期限,规范执行场所、执行方式,健全适用审批制度。
  – Seriously implementing the system of residential surveillance at designated places. Tight control shall be enforced on the conditions and duration of residential surveillance, as well as the places and means of enforcement, in addition to improvement of the pertinent review and approval system.
  ——强化对公安执法办案活动的刚性约束。改革完善受立案制度、执法质量考评制度和执法过错责任追究制度。加强执法办案场所办案区使用管理,深化公安执法信息化建设。
  – Imposing rigid constraints on law-enforcing and case-handling activities of public security organs. Efforts shall be made to reform and improve the systems of acceptance and hearing of cases, appraisal of law-enforcement effectiveness, and accountability for mistakes in law-enforcement. Management shall be strengthened of the use of case-handling sites and areas for law enforcement, and improvement shall be made of the IT application in law enforcement for public security bodies.
  ——加大力度查处国家机关工作人员利用职权实施非法拘禁等侵犯公民人身权利的犯罪。
  – Making greater efforts to investigate and punish government functionaries abusing power to illegally detain people or commit other crimes that infringe upon the rights of the person.
  ——严格把握死刑适用条件。强化死刑复核程序,进一步规范死刑复核监督程序。
  – Strictly observing the conditions applicable to death penalty. The procedure of checking and verification shall be strengthened for death sentence, and the procedure of oversight over death sentence checking and verification shall be further regularized.
  ——制定看守所法,提升被羁押人权利保障的立法层级,完善配套法律法规和规章制度。
  – Formulating the Law on Detention Houses. The level of legislation for protecting the rights of detainees shall be raised, in addition to enacting related supporting laws, regulations, provisions and rules.
  ——健全刑事羁押必要性审查制度。发现不需要继续羁押或患有严重疾病不适宜羁押的,应当释放犯罪嫌疑人、被告人或变更强制措施。
  – Improving the system of examining and approving the necessity of criminal custody. Where custody is deemed unnecessary or unsuitable due to severe illness, the criminal suspects or defendants shall be released or the coercive measures be changed.
  ——加强刑事羁押期限监督。预防和清理久押不决案件,严格落实换押制度、超期羁押报告制度及责任追究制度。
  – Enhancing supervision over the duration of criminal custody. Efforts shall be made to prevent and settle prolonged detention of suspects without concluding the case, and strictly implement the systems of changing custody, reporting overdue custody and accountability for detention beyond the legally prescribed time limit.
  ——严格落实监管场所的各项规章制度。完善被羁押人投诉处理机制,畅通被羁押人权利救济渠道。加强监管场所检察信息化建设,实现对监管场所的动态监督。
  – Strictly implementing the rules and regulations on places of surveillance. The mechanism to handle detainees’ complaints shall be improved, and channels of right relief be unblocked for them. IT application in relation to procuratorial work shall be strengthened for places of surveillance, and dynamic oversight be realized in such places.
  ——规范强制医疗的执行、治疗、管理和监督,保障被强制医疗人员的权利。
  – Promoting procedure-based enforcement, medical care, management and supervision of compulsory medical treatment, and protecting the rights of those receiving compulsory medical treatment.
  ——落实禁毒法和戒毒条例。依法规范强制隔离戒毒决定、提前解除强制隔离戒毒决定、延长戒毒期限决定的作出。提升戒毒医疗、康复水平,保障戒毒人员合法权利。
  – Implementing the Anti-Drug Law and the Regulations on Drug Rehabilitation. Standard rules shall be implemented for decision-making on compulsory isolation for drug rehabilitation, early termination or extension of the terms of such drug rehabilitation. The effectiveness of medical treatment and rehabilitation in relation to drug addiction shall be improved, and the lawful rights of drug addicts undergoing rehabilitation shall be protected.
  (二)获得公正审判的权利
  (2) Right to fair trial
  尊重司法运行规律,建立以审判为中心的诉讼制度,提高司法公信力。
  Following the rule of judicial operation, an adjudication-centered litigation system shall be established, and judicial credibility shall be enhanced.
  ——确保法院依法独立行使审判权。完善对领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的记录、通报和责任追究制度。明确司法机关内部各层级权限,健全内部监督制约机制,完善对司法机关内部人员过问案件的记录制度和责任追究制度。
  – Ensuring the people’s courts exercise adjudicative power independently and in accordance with the law. The system that archives leading officials’ intervention in judicial activities and in the handling of particular cases shall be improved, making them known to the public, and holding them accountable. The limits of authority at all levels within the judicial bodies shall be clearly defined. The mechanism of internal checks and oversight shall be improved, so shall the recording and accountability systems regarding judicial personnel who intervene in case handling.
  ——规范司法解释和案例指导,统一法律适用标准。
  – Standardizing judicial interpretation and case guidance, and unifying the criteria for the application of the law.
  ——全面贯彻证据裁判原则。落实直接言词原则,严格落实证人、鉴定人出庭制度。
  – Implementing the principle of evidentiary adjudication. The principles of testimony and trial in court shall be implemented, so shall the system of court appearance of witnesses and authenticators.
  ——贯彻疑罪从无原则,严格实行非法证据排除规则,进一步明确非法证据的范围和排除程序。
  – Implementing the principle of presumption of innocence, and the rule of exclusion of illegally obtained evidence, and specifying the scope and exclusion procedures of illegal evidence.
  ——加强诉讼过程中律师的知情权、申请权、申诉权等各项权利的制度保障,落实相关法律赋予律师在诉讼中会见、阅卷、收集证据和发问、质证、辩论等方面的执业权利,保障律师依法行使辩护权、代理权。健全完善侦查、起诉、审判各环节重视律师辩护代理意见的工作机制,落实听取律师意见制度。禁止对律师进行歧视性安检,为律师依法履职提供便利。
  – Enhancing institutional guarantee for lawyers’ rights to know, apply and appeal throughout the course of litigation, ensuring their access to criminal suspects or defendants, and rights to review files, collect evidence, raise questions, conduct cross-examinations and debate, and ensuring lawyers exercise their rights of defense and procuration in accordance with the law. The mechanism of valuing lawyers’ defense and procuration opinions in investigation, prosecution and trial shall be improved, and the system of listening to their opinions shall be observed. Discriminatory security checks of lawyers are prohibited, in order to provide convenience for them to perform their duties in accordance with the law.
  ——强化诉讼过程中当事人和其他诉讼参与人的知情权、陈述权、辩论辩护权、申请权、申诉权的制度保障,落实刑事诉讼法及相关配套法规制度关于法律援助的规定。
  – Enhancing institutional guarantee for the rights of litigants and other parties involved in the lawsuit to know, present views, debate and defense, apply and appeal, and implementing regulations on legal aid prescribed in the Criminal Procedure Law and related rules and regulations.
  ——完善刑事诉讼中认罪认罚从宽制度。明确被告人自愿认罪、自愿接受处罚、积极退赃退赔案件的诉讼程序、处罚标准和处理方式。
  – Improving the practice of leniency to those who confess their crimes and submit to punishment in criminal proceedings. The judicial proceedings, penalty standards and handling means shall be clarified for cases where defendants plead guilty, accept punishment, surrender ill-gotten gains or pay compensation, all of their own accord.
  ——继续推进量刑规范化,规范法官的量刑裁量权,完善量刑程序,促进量刑公开、公正。
  – Pressing further forward with standardization in meting out punishment, regularizing the judges’ sentencing discretion, improving sentencing procedures, and enhancing openness and impartiality in sentencing.
  ——禁止让刑事在押被告人或上诉人穿着具有监管机构标识的服装出庭受审。
  – Prohibiting defendants who are held in custody or appellants from appearing in court wearing clothing that bear the logo of their organs of custody.
  ——健全轻微刑事案件快速办理机制,有序推进刑事案件速裁程序改革。
  – Improving the mechanism for fast-track handling of minor criminal cases, and reforming fast-track trial procedures for criminal cases in an orderly manner.
  ——制定刑事被害人救助法,建立统一、规范的刑事被害人救助制度。
  – Formulating the Law on Assistance for Victims of Crime, and establishing a unified, procedure-based relief system for victims of crime.
  (三)宗教信仰自由
  (3) Freedom of religious belief
  提高宗教工作法治化水平,落实宗教信仰自由的宪法规定。
  Rule of law shall be enhanced in addressing religious affairs, and the stipulation in the Constitution concerning freedom of religious belief shall be implemented.
  ——修改宗教事务条例,依法规范政府管理宗教事务的行为,保护广大信教群众合法权益。
  – Amending the Regulations on Religious Affairs, regularizing in accordance with the law the conduct of the government in managing religious affairs, and protecting the lawful rights and interests of religious believers.
  ——支持宗教界加强自身建设,提高自我约束、自我规范、自我管理能力。为宗教团体开展工作提供必要的支持和帮助。
  – Supporting the efforts of the religious circles for self-improvement to enhance their capabilities for self-regulation, self-discipline and self-management. Necessary support and assistance shall be provided for religious groups to hold activities.
  ——鼓励宗教界依法开展公益慈善活动。
  – Encouraging religious circles to organize charity activities in accordance with the law.
  ——办好宗教院校,加强宗教人才培养,提高宗教教职人员素质。
  – Making efforts to run the religious institutes well, improving the training of religious professionals, and improving the qualities of faculty and staff of the religious institutes.
  ——遏制投资经营宗教活动场所行为,制止和纠正寺庙、道观“被承包”现象。
  – Halting investments in and commercial use of venues for religious activities, and prohibiting the “contracting” of Buddhist monasteries and Taoist temples.
  ——改进伊斯兰教朝觐组织服务工作,保障穆斯林群众顺利完成朝觐功课。
  – Improving organization and services for the Islamic Hajj.
  ——积极开展对外宗教交流活动。
  – Actively engaging in religious exchanges with the outside world.
  (四)知情权和参与权
  (4) Rights to know and to participate
  多渠道多领域拓宽公民知情权的范围,扩展有序参与社会治理的途径和方式。
  Expanding the citizens’ right to know through various channels and in various fields, and increasing the means and forms of their orderly participation in social governance.
  ——进一步推进权力清单和责任清单公开,方便公众获取和监督。各级政府及其工作部门依据权力清单向社会全面公开政府职能、职责权限、管理流程、监督方式。
  – Further pressing forward with making public the lists of powers and responsibilities for easier supervision by the public. The people’s governments at all levels and their subordinate departments shall make public their functions, responsibilities, powers, administrative procedures and means of accepting public supervision.
  ——推行行政执法公示制度。
  – Introducing the system of publicity for administrative law enforcement.
  ——加强互联网政务信息数据服务平台和便民服务平台建设,提高政务公开信息化、集中化水平。
  – Improving the construction of online administrative information data platform and public service platform, and promoting IT application to make governmental affairs more open and easier to access.
  ——完善突发事件信息发布制度。
  – Improving the information disclosure system for emergencies.
  ——推进警务、狱务、审判、检务公开。依法及时公开执法司法依据、程序、流程、结果,建立生效法律文书统一上网和公开查询制度。
  – Disclosing information about police, prison, adjudicative and procuratorial affairs. Information shall be released in time about the basis, procedures, processes and results of judicature and law enforcement in accordance with the law, and a system of unified online announcement and open inquiry shall be established for effective legal documents.
  ——提高立法公众参与度。探索建立有关国家机关、社会团体、专家学者等对立法中涉及的重大利益调整论证咨询机制,拓宽公民有序参与立法途径,健全法律法规规章草案公开征求意见和公众意见采纳情况反馈机制。
  – Enlarging public involvement in legislation. Exploration shall be made for the establishment of a mechanism in which the state organs, social groups, specialists and scholars provide argument and consultation for the adjustment of major interests in the process of legislation, thus expanding the channels for the public’s orderly participation in legislation, and improving the mechanisms of soliciting public opinion for the drafting of laws, regulations and provisions, and giving feedbacks to the public.
  ——落实人民陪审员“倍增计划”,拓宽选任渠道和范围,明确参审案件职权。
  – Implementing the plan of doubling the number of people’s jurors, expanding the channels and scope of their selection and appointment, and specifying their functions and powers.
  ——进一步完善特约检察员机制,切实采取措施保障特约检察员依法履行职责,参与检察,谋议检务。
  – Improving the mechanism of having specially-invited procurators, and taking effective measures to ensure they perform their duties in accordance with the law and involve in the deliberation of procuratorial affairs.
  ——完善人民监督员制度。改革选任和管理方式,充分保障人民监督员的各项权利,进一步拓宽人民群众有序参与司法渠道。
  – Improving the people’s supervisor system. The selection, appointment and management of people’s supervisors shall be improved, their rights be fully protected, and the channels be expanded for the public’s orderly participation in judicial affairs.
  ——在司法调解、司法听证、涉诉信访等活动中保障人民群众参与。
  – Ensuring public participation in judicial mediation and hearing, and addressing petition letters and visits in relation to legal proceedings.
  ——发挥市民公约、乡规民约、行业规章、团体章程等社会规范在社会治理中的积极作用,推进社会自治。
  – Bringing into play the positive role of citizens’ code of conduct, village regulations and folk conventions, and statutes of trades and social groups in social governance, and advancing self-governance of society.
  ——支持社会组织参与社会服务。发展社会工作服务机构和志愿服务组织,推进行业协会与行政机关脱钩,支持慈善组织有序发展,完善社会组织登记管理制度及政府向社会组织购买服务制度。
  – Supporting social organizations to participate in the provision of social services. Efforts shall be made to develop social work service agencies and voluntary service associations, promote the separation of trade associations from administrative bodies, facilitate the orderly development of charity organizations, and improve the systems of registration and management of social organizations and of government buying services from them.
  ——修改城市居民委员会组织法,加快制定或修改村委会组织法配套法规。推进居务、村务公开建设,促进居民、村民民主参与。
  – Revising the Organic Law on Urban Residents’ Committees, and accelerating the pace of formulating or amending supporting laws and regulations of the Organic Law on Villagers’ Committees. Efforts shall be made to forge ahead with transparency of the work of urban residents’ and villagers’ committees, and encourage democratic participation by urban and rural residents.
  ——健全以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度。推进企事业单位信息公开制度化、规范化建设,保障职工的知情权,有效参与民主管理。
  – Improving the system of democratic management of enterprises and public institutions in the form of employees’ congresses. Efforts shall be made to press forward with institutionalization and normalization of information disclosure in enterprises and public institutions, and ensure employees’ right to know and to participate in democratic management.
  (五)表达权和监督权
  (5) Rights of expression and supervision
  扩展表达空间,丰富表达手段和渠道,健全权力运行制约和监督体系,依法保障公民的表达自由和民主监督权利。
  Giving more space to public opinion, increasing the means and channels of expression, improving the check and supervision system for the operation of power, and protecting in accordance with the law the citizens’ rights of free expression and democratic supervision.
  ——依法保障公民互联网言论自由。继续完善为网民发表言论的服务,重视互联网反映的社情民意。
  – Protecting the citizens’ freedom of speech on the Internet in accordance with the law. Services shall be further improved for netizens to express their opinions, and great store shall be set on social sentiments and public opinions as expressed on the Internet.
  ——建立对各级国家机关违法行为投诉举报登记制度。畅通举报箱、电子信箱、热线电话等监督渠道,发挥社会监督的作用。
  – Establishing a registration system for complaints about and reports of unlawful acts by state organs at all levels, smoothing out such supervisory channels as informants’ letterbox, complaint e-mail and hotline, so as to give full play to public supervision.
  ——完善信访工作制度,推进信访法治化。健全诉访分离工作机制和涉诉信访终结机制。推进集控告、举报、申诉、投诉、咨询、查询于一体的综合性受理平台建设,实行网上信访,依法分类处理信访诉求,保障公民合理、合法诉求依照法律规定和程序就能得到合理合法的结果。
  – Improving the regulations regarding the people’s complaints and promoting law-based handling of such complaints. Mechanisms shall be improved to separate litigations from complaints, and bring to conclusion all petitions relating to legal proceedings lodged by way of letters or personal visits to relevant government departments. A platform integrating accusation, offence reporting, appeal, complaint, consultation and search shall be built, online processing of complaints shall be encouraged, and complaints shall be classified and handled in accordance with the law. Citizens’ rational and lawful appeals shall be resolved in accordance with legal provisions and procedures.
  ——修改行政复议法,保障公民和社会组织通过申请行政复议对行政机关依法行政进行监督的权利。加大对公务员违法违纪行为的监察力度。
  – Amending the Administrative Reconsideration Law, and protecting citizens’ and social organizations’ rights to supervise administrative bodies by applying for administrative reconsideration. Oversight shall be strengthened on civil servants’ violations of law and discipline.
  ——发挥报刊、广播、电视等传统媒体监督作用,加强传统媒体与互联网等新兴媒体的互动,重视运用和规范网络监督。依法保障新闻机构和从业人员的知情权、采访权、发表权、批评权、监督权。
  – Giving full play to supervision by newspapers, magazines, radio, television and other types of traditional media, increasing the interaction between traditional media and new media like the Internet, and highlighting law-based online supervision. Protection in accordance with the law shall be extended to the rights of news agencies and their staff to information, interview, publication, criticism and supervision.
  ——完善全国人大及其常委会宪法监督制度,健全宪法解释程序机制。加强备案审查制度和能力建设,把所有规范性文件纳入备案审查范围,依法撤销和纠正违宪违法的规范性文件。健全人大讨论、决定重大事项制度,各级政府重大决策出台前需向本级人大报告。
  – Improving the system of constitutional supervision by the National People’s Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee, and the mechanism of procedures for the interpretation of the Constitution. The legislative recording and review system and capability building shall be improved, and all normative documents shall be brought into the scope of such recording and review. All normative documents that violate the Constitution or laws shall be abrogated or corrected. Systems shall be improved by which the people’s congresses discuss and decide on major issues, and governments at all levels report to the people’s congresses at the same level before making major policy decisions.
  ——搭建政协协商平台,丰富协商内容和形式。以事关经济社会发展全局和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,开展广泛协商,完善民主监督的组织领导、权益保障、知情反馈、沟通协调机制。
  – Building a platform of consultation for the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), and enriching the contents and forms of consultation. Targeting issues bearing on overall social and economic development and the people’s immediate interests, CPPCC will conduct extensive consultation. The mechanisms of organizing democratic supervision, safeguarding related rights and interests, providing feedbacks, and facilitating communication and coordination shall be improved.
  ——完善审计监督。健全有利于依法独立行使审计监督权的审计管理体制,建立具有审计职业特点的审计人员管理制度,基本形成与国家治理体系和治理能力现代化相适应的审计监督机制。对公共资金、国有资产、国有资源和领导干部履行经济责任情况实行审计全覆盖。
  – Improving auditing supervision. The auditing management system conducive to exercising the right of auditing supervision independently and in accordance with the law shall be improved, and an auditing personnel management system with distinctive professional features shall be established, so as to form a system of auditing supervision commensurate to the modernization of a national governance system and capacity. Full coverage of auditing shall be endeavored over public funds, state-owned assets and resources, as well as leading officials’ performance of economic duties.
  三、特定群体权利
  III. Rights of Specific Groups
  采取有针对性的措施,有效满足各类群体的特殊需求,切实保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的合法权益。
  Targeted measures shall be taken to satisfy the special needs of various groups and to protect the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities, women, children, elderly people and the disabled.
  (一)少数民族权利
  (1) Rights of ethnic minorities
  国家把加快少数民族和民族地区发展摆到更加突出的位置,尊重和保障少数民族权利。
  The state will prioritize the development of ethnic minorities and ethnic-minority areas, respecting and protecting the rights of ethnic minorities.
  ——保障少数民族平等参与管理国家和社会事务的权利。提高少数民族参政议政能力。保证在中央和地方国家权力机关、行政机关、审判机关和检察机关都有相应数量的少数民族成员。加强少数民族公务员队伍建设,对少数民族公民报考公务员依法给予照顾。
  – The right of ethnic minorities to participate in the management of state and social affairs on an equal footing shall be guaranteed by the state. Their ability to participate in the deliberation and administration of state affairs shall be improved. The state will make sure that minority groups have a proportionate number of representatives in organs of state power and administrative, judicial and procuratorate organs at both the central and local levels. It will improve the work to build up the ranks of ethnic-minority civil servants, and ethnic-minority citizens shall enjoy favorable treatment in accordance with the law when they take the national civil service examination.
  ——保障少数民族经济发展权利。促进少数民族事业发展,加大财政投入和金融支持,改善基础设施条件,支持民族地区发展优势产业和特色经济,确保到2020年在民族地区基本消除绝对贫困现象,持续促进民族地区经济发展主要指标增速高于全国平均水平。
  – The right of ethnic minorities to economic development shall be guaranteed. The state will continue to help boost the economy of ethnic-minority areas by increasing budgetary input and financial aid, improving infrastructure and supporting competitive industries and economic endeavors with distinctive features of minority areas, to see to it that absolute poverty in these areas shall be basically eliminated by 2020 and that the major indicators of economic development of these areas shall be higher than the national average.
  ——保障少数民族均等享有公共服务的权利。推动国家公共服务资源向民族自治地方倾斜。加强跨省区对口支援和对口帮扶工作,进一步缩小民族自治地方的城乡居民收入、义务教育、医疗卫生、社会保障与全国平均水平的差距。
  – The right of ethnic minorities to enjoy equal access to public services shall be guaranteed. Efforts shall be made to channel public service resources to the ethnic autonomous areas, and strengthen trans-provincial/regional pair-up assistance to further narrow the gaps in the incomes of urban and rural residents, as well as in compulsory education, medical care, and social security between ethnic autonomous areas and the national average.
  ——保障少数民族受教育权利。继续推动公共教育资源向民族地区倾斜,深入推进教育对口支援。支持民族地区义务教育学校标准化建设,到2020年基本实现县域内义务教育均衡发展。为民族地区培养输送农村教师。适当提高东中部省市职业院校招收民族地区学生的比例。继续办好内地民族班。重视培养和使用各类少数民族人才。
  – The right of ethnic minorities to education shall be guaranteed. Efforts shall be made continuously to transfer more public education resources to ethnic-minority areas and strengthen pair-up assistance in education; to support ethnic-minority areas in standardized construction of compulsory-education schools, so as to realize the balanced development of compulsory education in each county by 2020; and to help ethnic-minority areas train teachers who will go and work in the rural areas. The proportion of students enrolled from ethnic-minority areas to vocational schools in central and eastern provinces and cities shall be raised appropriately. Renewed efforts shall be made to run well special classes for ethnic-minority students in hinterland areas. Importance shall be attached to the training and utilization of skilled people of ethnic minority origin in all professions.
  ——尊重和保障少数民族学习使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。不断提高少数民族语言文字教育水平,在民族地区加强双语教学。保障少数民族公民使用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。
  – The right of ethnic minorities to learn, use and develop their own spoken and written languages shall be respected and guaranteed. The language education level of ethnic minorities is constantly being raised and bilingual teaching increased in ethnic-minority areas. Their right to litigate in their own languages is protected.
  ——保障少数民族的文化权利。保护和传承少数民族传统文化,做好少数民族古籍保护、抢救、整理、出版和研究工作。加强少数民族文艺作品创作生产,鼓励和扶持反映各民族文化交融、创新的现实题材作品。加大民族地区特色文化产业扶持力度。
  – The cultural rights of ethnic minorities shall be guaranteed. The state shall protect and pass on the traditional culture of ethnic minorities, and step up efforts to protect, rescue, sort out, publish and research ancient books of ethnic minorities. It shall encourage the creation of literary works of ethnic minorities, and support innovative realistic works featuring integration of ethnic cultures. It shall increase support for the ethnic-culture industry with distinctive features.
  ——修改城市民族工作条例,保障城市中少数民族合法权益。
  – Urban work regulations concerning ethnic minorities shall be revised to protect the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minorities in urban areas.
  (二)妇女权利
  (2) Rights of women
  贯彻落实男女平等基本国策,全面实现《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》目标,消除性别歧视,改善妇女发展环境,保障妇女合法权益。
  The basic state policy of equality of men and women shall be implemented. Objectives set in the National Program for Women’s Development (2011-2020) shall be realized to eliminate gender discrimination, improve the environment for women’s development and protect the legitimate rights and interests of women.
  ——继续促进妇女平等参与管理国家和社会事务。逐步提高女性在各级人大代表、政协委员中的比例,以及在各级人大、政府、政协领导成员中的比例。到2020年,村民委员会成员中女性比例达30%以上,村民委员会主任中女性比例达10%以上,居民委员会成员中女性比例保持在50%左右。
  – Efforts shall be carried on to promote equal participation of women in the management of state and social affairs. The proportion of women delegates to the people’s congresses and CPPCC committees at all levels shall be gradually increased, so shall the proportion of women in the leadership of the people’s congresses, governments and CPPCC committees at all levels. By 2020, women members shall make up over 30 percent of total members of villagers’ committees, over 10 percent of the villagers’ committee chairpersons, and about 50 percent of the members of urban residents’ committees.
  ——努力消除在就业、薪酬、职业发展方面的性别歧视。将女职工特殊劳动保护作为劳动保障监察和劳动安全监督的重要内容,实行年度考核。
  – Efforts shall be made to eliminate gender discrimination in employment, payment and career development. Special labor protection for women workers shall be made an important content in labor security and safety supervision. Annual assessment shall be conducted in this regard.
  ——保障妇女的健康权利。完善城乡生育保障制度,向孕产妇提供生育全过程的基本医疗保健服务。到2020年,孕产妇死亡率降为18/10万,新增产床8.9万张,力争增加产科医生和助产士14万名。提高妇女常见病筛查率,扩大农村妇女宫颈癌、乳腺癌免费检查覆盖范围。加强流动妇女卫生保健服务。
  – Women’s right to health shall be protected. Efforts shall be made to improve the maternity service system in urban and rural areas, and provide basic medical and health services for pregnant and lying-in women. By 2020, the mortality rate of pregnant and lying-in women shall drop to 18 per 100,000; an additional 89,000 obstetric tables and 140,000 obstetricians and midwives be added. The screening of common gynecological diseases shall be raised, and the scope of free check-ups for cervical and breast cancers be expanded for rural women. Health-care services for migrant women shall be improved.
  ——保障妇女的婚姻家庭权利。设立男性职工带薪陪护分娩妻子的假期制度。大力发展针对0-3岁幼儿的托幼机构,为妇女平衡工作与家庭提供支持。保障妇女在婚姻家庭中的财产权益。
  – Women’s rights of marriage and the family shall be protected. A system of paid maternity leave for male workers to accompany and attend to puerperal wives shall be introduced. Great efforts shall be made to develop nurseries for kids under three years old to help women balance work and family duties. Women’ s property rights and interests in marriage and the family shall be protected.
  ——贯彻落实反家庭暴力法。完善预防和制止家庭暴力多部门合作机制,以及预防、制止和救助一体化工作机制。鼓励和扶持社会组织参与反家庭暴力工作。
  – The Anti-Domestic Violence Law shall be enforced. The multi-departmental cooperative mechanism for the prevention and prohibition of domestic violence shall be improved, so shall an integrated working mechanism that combines prevention, prohibition and assistance. Social organizations shall be encouraged and helped to take part in the work against domestic violence.
  ——落实《中国反对拐卖人口行动计划(2013-2020年)》,有效预防和依法打击拐卖妇女犯罪行为。
  – China’s Action Plan Against Human Abduction and Trafficking (2013-2020) shall be implemented and effective efforts shall be made to prevent and crack down on such crimes in accordance with the law.
  ——预防和制止针对妇女的性骚扰。
  – Steps shall be taken to prevent and stop sexual harassment of women.
  (三)儿童权利
  (3) Rights of children
  坚持儿童优先原则,强化政府和社会保障儿童权益的责任,全面实现《中国儿童发展纲要(2011-2020年)》目标。
  The principle of “putting children first” shall be upheld, the responsibility of the government and the whole of society for the protection of children’ s rights and interests shall be highlighted, and the goals set in the National Program for Children’ s Development in China (2011-2020) shall be fully realized.
  ——修改未成年人保护法。
  – The Law on the Protection of Minors shall be amended.
  ——完善儿童监护制度。构建未成年人关爱社会网络。逐步建立以家庭监护为主体,以社区、学校等有关单位和人员监督为保障,以国家监护为补充的监护制度。完善并落实不履行监护职责或严重侵害被监护儿童权益的父母或其他监护人资格撤销的法律制度。
  – The children guardianship system shall be improved, and a social network for the care of minors shall be established. A guardianship system, which is based on family guardianship, guaranteed by supervision of relevant institutions and persons such as the neighborhood and school, and supplemented by state guardianship, shall be established in due course. The legal system shall be improved to remove the guardianship status of parents or other custodians who fail to perform their responsibilities or seriously infringe upon the rights and interests of children under their guardianship.
  ——保障儿童健康权。加强出生缺陷综合防治,建立覆盖城乡居民,涵盖孕前、孕期、新生儿各阶段的出生缺陷防治服务制度。加强儿童疾病防治和预防伤害,到2020年,婴儿死亡率、5岁以下儿童死亡率分别控制在7.5‰和9.5‰以内。纳入国家免疫规划的疫苗接种率以乡(镇)为单位保持在95%以上。继续推行农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。强化学校体育工作,不断提升学生体质健康水平。加强未成年人心理健康引导。
  – Children’s right to health shall be effectively protected. The state shall establish a service system to prevent and treat birth defects, covering the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and neonatal stages, and accessible to both urban and rural residents. The state shall also enhance the prevention and treatment of childhood diseases and injuries. By 2020, the mortality rate of infants and kids under the age of five shall be no higher than 7.5 per 1,000 and 9.5 per 1,000, respectively. The vaccination rate under the national immunization program, calculated by taking the rural township as the basic unit, shall be kept above 95 percent. The nutrition-enhancement program for students receiving compulsory education in rural areas shall be carried on. Physical education in schools shall be given great priority in order to constantly improve the students’ physical health. More guidance shall be given to improve the mental health of minors.
  ——加强儿童财产权益保护。依法保障儿童的财产收益权和获赠权、知识产权、继承权、一定权限内独立的财产支配权。
  – Protection of children’s rights and interests in property shall be improved. Protection shall be extended, in accordance with the law, to the children’ s rights to proceeds generated by property, bequests, intellectual property right, right of inheritance, and independent right of property dominion within certain limits.
  ——加强校园及周边社会治安综合治理,加强校车安全管理,预防和制止校园暴力。
  – Comprehensive maintenance of public security on and around school premises shall be strengthened, school bus safety management shall be enhanced, and violence on campus shall be prevented and stopped.
  ——创造有利于儿童参与的社会环境。鼓励并支持儿童参与家庭、学校和社会事务,畅通儿童参与和表达渠道。
  – A social environment conducive to the involvement of children shall be created. Encouragement and support shall be given to children to participate in family, school and social affairs, and channels shall be opened up for children to get involved and express themselves.
  ——保障儿童享有闲暇和娱乐的权利。加强社区儿童活动和服务场所建设,到2020年,“儿童之家”覆盖90%以上的城乡社区。确保街道和乡镇配备1名以上专职或者兼职儿童社会工作者。标本兼治减轻学生课业负担。
  – Children’s right to leisure and recreation shall be guaranteed. Efforts shall be enhanced in the construction of facilities for children’s activities and services in communities. By 2020, there will be “children’s homes” in over 90 percent of urban and rural communities. At least one full-time or part-time social worker in relation to children shall be employed in each urban sub-district and rural township. The schoolwork load shall be lessened by addressing both the root cause and symptoms.
  ——关爱困境儿童。全面构建覆盖市、县、乡镇(街道)、社区四级儿童福利保障和服务体系,实施县级儿童福利机构和未成年人保护机构建设规划。健全困境儿童保障制度。进一步完善孤儿保障制度。提高受艾滋病影响儿童和服刑人员未满18周岁子女的生活、受教育、医疗等权利保障水平。加大对农村留守儿童的关爱保护力度。
  – Deprived children shall be taken care of. Children’s welfare and service systems at city, county, township (sub-district) and community levels shall be established, in addition to the implementation of a plan for the construction of children’s welfare institutions and institutions for the protection of minors at the county level. The system of welfare for deprived children shall be improved. The security system for orphans shall be perfected. The level of guarantee for the rights to life, education, health care and other rights of AIDS-affected children and prisoners’ children under 18 years old shall be improved. Greater protection and care shall be extended to children of migrant workers left behind in the countryside.
  ——建立儿童暴力伤害的监测预防、发现报告、调查评估、处置、救助工作运行机制。依法打击拐卖、虐待、遗弃儿童,利用儿童进行乞讨,以及针对儿童的一切形式的性侵犯等违法犯罪行为。严厉惩处使用童工和对儿童进行经济剥削的违法行为。
  – A working mechanism against violence to children shall be in place, which will prevent, monitor, report, investigate, evaluate, and handle cases of violence to children and provide necessary assistance. Great store shall be set on punishing the abduction, maltreatment and abandonment of children, forcing children into begging and other illegal criminal activities, including all forms of sexual abuse of children. Severe punishments shall be meted out to criminal activities, such as employment of child labor and exploitation of children.
  ——最大限度地降低未成年犯罪嫌疑人的批捕率、起诉率和监禁率。改革少年审判和家事审判工作制度,建立儿童司法保护和行政保护衔接机制。继续做好犯罪未成年人社区矫正工作。
  – Every attention shall be paid to reducing the number of arrest, prosecution and imprisonment of juvenile suspects. Reform shall be made of the working mechanism in relation to the trial of minors and children-related family cases, and a mechanism shall be established to link up judicial and administrative protection of children. Efforts shall be made to do well in community-based correction of juvenile delinquents.
  (四)老年人权利
  (4) Rights of the elderly
  弘扬敬老养老助老社会风尚,实施老龄互助关爱工程,构建人口老龄化应对体系,切实维护老年人合法权益。
  The social value to respect, provide for and help the elderly shall be carried forward, and mutual care projects for the elderly shall be undertaken. A mechanism to address population ageing shall be developed to effectively protect the legal rights and interests of elderly people.
  ——全面建成以居家为基础、社区为依托、机构为补充,功能完善、规模适度、覆盖城乡、医养结合的养老服务体系。全面放开养老服务市场,通过购买服务、股权合作等方式支持各类市场主体增加养老服务和产品供给。到2020年,养老服务设施覆盖90%以上城镇社区和60%以上农村社区。
  – An old-age service system, which is based on individual families, backed by the communities, supplemented by different institutions, boasts a more complete range of functions, is of an appropriate scale, covers both urban and rural areas and combines medical treatment with endowment care, shall be established. The old-age service market shall be open fully, and various market players shall be encouraged to increase the provision of old-age services and products by multiple means such as buying services and equity cooperation. By 2020, the old-age service facilities shall appear in over 90 percent of urban communities and 60 percent of rural communities.
  ——健全防治结合、多元发展的老年医疗卫生服务体系,提高老年人健康服务可及性和老年人健康管理率。
  – A system of old-age medical care service combining prevention with treatment and boasting diversified development shall be improved. The accessibility of health care services to the elderly and their health management rate shall be improved.
  ——建立完善老年人监护制度。
  – A guardianship system for the elderly shall be set up and improved.
  ——加强老年人优待工作,完善老年人社会福利制度和救助制度。全面建立针对经济困难高龄、失能老年人的补贴制度。
  – Preferential treatment for the elderly shall be strengthened, and the social welfare system and assistance system geared toward the elderly shall be improved. A subsidy system for the elderly advanced in age, in straitened circumstances, and incapacitated shall be put in full shape.
  ——建立健全老年宜居环境政策法规和标准规范体系。继续提高新建公共设施和涉老设施无障碍率,推进老年宜居环境建设。
  – Policies, regulations and normative standards in relation to livable environment for elderly people shall be established and improved. Continuous efforts shall be made to increase the barrier-free rate in newly-built public facilities and facilities geared toward elderly people, and press forward with the development of an environment friendly to the elderly people.
  ——推进服务老年人的公共文化设施建设。继续扩大公共文化机构向老年人免费开放项目,增加老年人公共文化产品供给。
  – Efforts shall be made to forge ahead with the construction of public cultural facilities for the elderly, and encourage public cultural institutions to make more free programs available to elderly people and to increase the supply of public cultural products to this group.
  ——加强社区养老服务设施与社区体育设施的功能衔接。支持社区利用公共服务设施和社会场所组织开展适合老年人的体育健身活动。
  – Efforts shall be made to integrate the functions of community old-age service facilities with those of sports facilities, encouraging communities to organize physical activities appropriate for the elderly by using public service facilities and other venues.
  ——大力支持老年社会组织发展。进一步扩大基层老年协会在城乡社区的覆盖率,提高老年人参与社会发展的意愿与程度
  – Greater encouragement shall be given to the development of social organizations for elderly people, the coverage of grassroots elderly people’ s associations shall be further expanded in urban and rural communities, and their will and level of participation in social development shall be enhanced.
  (五)残疾人权利
  (5) Rights of the disabled
  健全残疾人权益保障制度,提高残疾人社会保障和基本公共服务水平,促进残疾人平等参与社会生活,保障所有残疾人的人权。
  The system of the protection of the rights and interests of the disabled shall be improved, the level of social security and basic public services for the disabled shall be raised, and efforts shall be made to bring them more opportunities to participate in social life on an equal footing and protect their human rights.
  ——全面实施困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。符合条件的残疾人家庭以及生活困难靠家庭供养且无法单独立户的成年无业重度残疾人按规定纳入最低生活保障。逐步扩大基本医疗保险支付的医疗康复项目范围。建立残疾儿童康复救助制度。有条件的地方可以为贫困、重度残疾人基本型辅助器具配置给予补贴。优先保障残疾人基本住房。实现残疾人基本民生兜底保障。
  – A system shall be fully implemented to provide living allowances to financially-challenged disabled people and nursing allowances to the severely disabled population. Families with disabled members that meet certain requirements, and the jobless and severely disabled adults who rely on their families for support are eligible for subsistence allowances. More medical rehabilitation services shall be brought into the scope of basic medical insurance. A system shall be established to provide rehabilitation and assistance to disabled children. Places where the conditions permit shall subsidize the financially-challenged and severely disabled people in their purchase of basic assistance devices. The basic housing needs of the disabled shall be first guaranteed. Break-even security shall be offered for the basic livelihood of the disabled.
  ——开展残疾人康复服务。制定实施《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》。为残疾人提供基本康复服务,以残疾儿童和持证残疾人为重点,实施精准康复服务。加强省、市、县级残疾人专业康复机构建设,支持二级综合医院转型建立以康复医疗为主的综合医院或康复医院,建立医疗机构与残疾人专业康复机构双向转诊制度。广泛开展残疾人社区康复。建设康复大学,培养康复专业技术人才。
  – The state shall carry out rehabilitation services for the disabled. It shall promulgate and put into force the Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation. Basic and targeted rehabilitation services shall be provided to the disabled, with the focus on disabled children and the identified disabled population. The development of professional rehabilitation institutions at provincial, city and county levels shall be improved. The state shall support second-grade general hospitals in their efforts to transform themselves into general hospitals mainly focusing on rehabilitation treatment or specialized rehabilitation hospitals. A two-way referral system shall be set up between medical institutions and specialized rehabilitation institutions for the disabled. Community-based rehabilitation services for the disabled shall be extensively carried out. The state shall build rehabilitation colleges to train professional rehabilitation personnel.
  ——推进精神障碍患者社区康复服务。到2020年,基本实现每个地级市拥有1所精神卫生社会福利机构,70%以上的县(市、区)设有精神障碍社区康复机构或通过政府购买服务等方式委托社会组织开展康复工作。
  – Community-based rehabilitation services shall be promoted for mental patients. By 2020, there will be one mental health social welfare center at each prefecture-level city, over 70 percent of counties (cities and districts) will have a community-based rehabilitation institution for mental disorders or entrust social organizations to carry out rehabilitation services through services purchased by the government.
  ——提升残疾人受教育水平。完善特殊教育学校布局,健全随班就读支持保障体系,努力为残疾儿童提供全纳教育,提供包括义务教育和高中阶段教育在内的12年免费教育,建立为不能到校学习的重度残疾儿童送教上门服务的制度。
  – The education level of the disabled shall be raised. Improvement shall be made of the planning and distribution of special education schools, as well as the support system that enables children with disabilities to study in regular classes, so as to provide inclusive education for them, i.e., 12-year free education covering nine-year compulsory education and three-year high-school education. A system shall be established in which home teaching is offered to severely disabled children.
  ——完善残疾人就业创业扶持政策,健全公共机构为残疾人提供就业岗位制度。加大对残疾人自主创业、灵活就业、辅助性就业、网络就业的政策扶持力度。加强残疾人就业培训与服务,为中西部地区50万名农村贫困残疾人提供实用技术培训,实现城镇新增50万残疾人就业。
  – Policies to support the disabled to find jobs and startup businesses shall be improved, so shall the system of providing jobs for the disabled by public institutions. Policy support shall be strengthened to the disabled in starting up their own businesses, or getting jobs in flexible ways, getting supported employment or getting Internet-based employment. Efforts shall be intensified to strengthen employment training and services for the disabled, providing practical technical training to 500,000 impoverished disabled people in the rural areas of central and western China, and ensuring that an additional 500,000 disabled people get employed in the urban areas.
  ——加强残疾人文化权益保障。增加在公共文化场所配备适合残疾人使用的文化娱乐器材。有条件的公共图书馆全部设置盲人阅览区域或阅览室。鼓励盲用读物和残疾人题材图书出版。实施《国家手语和盲文规范化行动计划(2015-2020年)》。
  – Protection of cultural rights and interests of the disabled shall be strengthened. Efforts shall be made to beef up investment in cultural and entertainment equipment appropriate for the disabled in the public cultural centers. Public libraries where conditions permit shall all have reading areas or reading rooms for the disabled. The publication of reading materials for the visually handicapped and books about the disabled people shall be encouraged. The National Sign Language and Braille Standardization Action Plan (2015-2020) shall be implemented.
  ——全面推进无障碍环境建设。确保新(改、扩)建道路、建筑物和居住区配套建设无障碍设施,推进已建设施无障碍改造。加强政府和公共服务机构网站无障碍改造,推动食品药品信息识别无障碍和影视节目加配字幕、手语,促进电信业务经营者、电子商务企业等为残疾人提供信息无障碍服务。进一步完善残疾人驾车服务措施。加大贫困重度残疾人家庭无障碍改造工作力度。
  – All-round endeavor shall be made in the building of barrier-free environments for the disabled. Barrier-free facilities shall be constructed on newly-built (renovated or expanded) roads, and in buildings and residential districts, or be added to existing facilities. Renovation shall be carried out to make barrier-free facilities available in the websites of government and public service agencies, make food and drug information identifiable without obstruction, add subtitles or sign language to movies and TV programs, and urge telecommunication service operators and e-commerce enterprises to provide barrier-free information to the disabled. Measures shall be taken to improve the driving experience of the disabled. In addition, efforts shall be stepped up to carry out renovation of barrier-free facilities for impoverished families with members suffering from severe disabilities.
  ——完善残疾人获得法律援助、法律服务和司法救助制度。严厉打击侵犯残疾人合法权益的违法犯罪行为。畅通残疾人群体的利益表达渠道。
  – The system by which the disabled get legal aid and services and judicial relief shall be improved. Illegal or criminal activities encroaching upon their legitimate rights and interests shall be seriously dealt with. Channels through which the disabled make their voices heard about their rights and interests shall be smoothed out.
  四、人权教育和研究
  IV. Human Rights Education and Research
  加大人权教育与培训力度,提高全社会人权意识;搭建人权研究平台,为人权事业发展提供智力支持。
  China shall intensify its efforts to promote human rights education and training, and to enhance the public’s awareness of the importance of human rights. It shall set up a human rights research platform to provide intellectual support for the cause of human rights.
  ——落实《关于完善国家工作人员学法用法制度的意见》,把人权教育作为加强国家工作人员学法用法工作重要内容。将人权知识纳入党委(党组)的学习内容,列入各级党校、干部学院、行政学院的课程体系,列为法官、检察官、警察等公职人员入职、培训必修课。
  – China shall implement the Opinions on Improving the System of Study and Use of the Law of State Functionaries, and make human rights education a key part of the work of enhancing the performance of state functionaries in this regard. The state shall include human rights knowledge in the education of Party committees (leading Party groups). It shall make human rights part of the curricula of Party schools, cadre colleges and administration institutes at all levels, and a required course for government employees, including judges, prosecutors and police officers, at the beginning of their careers or during training.
  ——把人权知识纳入国民教育内容。以灵活多样的形式将人权知识融入中小学教育教学活动中。面向幼儿教师、中小学教师开展人权知识培训。
  – China shall include human rights knowledge in the content of national education. The state shall make sure that human rights knowledge is integrated into the teaching activities of elementary and middle schools in flexible and diverse ways. It shall also provide human rights training for preschool, and elementary and secondary school teachers.
  ——继续支持高校开展人权通识教育,进一步加强人权方面的学科和方向研究生的招生和培养。提升高校、科研院所开展人权重大理论与实践问题研究的能力,设立人权理论研究国家科研专项。
  – China shall continue to support education in human rights in institutions of higher learning. The state shall further strengthen the development of human rights-related disciplines, and postgraduate enrollment and training. It shall improve the abilities of institutions of higher learning and research institutes to carry out studies on important theories and practical problems concerning human rights, and establish a national scientific research project on human rights theories.
  ——支持和鼓励企事业单位加强人权教育、培训,培育人权文化,在境内外投资中将尊重和保障人权作为决策的重要考虑因素。
  – China shall support and encourage the enhancement of human rights education and training in enterprises and public institutions. The state shall develop a human rights culture, and take respecting and guaranteeing human rights as an important factor in decisions concerning both domestic and foreign investment.
  ——规范国家人权教育与培训基地工作。到2020年,再增加5家人权教育与培训基地。规范基地管理,创新基地运作模式,加强人才队伍建设,加大资金投入,建设中国特色新型高端人权智库。
  – China shall standardize the work of national human rights education and training bases. It plans to add five bases to the current ones by 2020. The state shall standardize management and make innovations in the operation mode of these bases. It shall train more personnel and invest more money in building a new-type and high-end human rights think tank with Chinese characteristics.
  ——开展设立国家人权机构必要性与可行性研究。
  – China shall study the necessity and feasibility of establishing a national human rights institution.
  ——支持新闻和网络媒体设立人权专题频道或栏目,普及人权知识,传播人权理念。
  – China shall support the opening of special channels or columns on human rights by news media to publicize human rights knowledge and raise awareness.
  五、人权条约履行和国际交流合作
  V. Fulfillment of Obligations to Human Rights Conventions, and International Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights
  认真履行已参加的国际人权条约,积极推进国际人权交流与合作。
  China shall continue to earnestly fulfill its obligations to the international human rights conventions to which it has acceded, and actively conduct international exchanges and cooperation in the field of human rights.
  ——撰写《经济社会文化权利国际公约》第三次履约报告,并提交联合国经济、社会和文化权利委员会审议。
  – China shall complete the third report on implementing the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and submit it to the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights for consideration.
  ——撰写《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第七次履约报告,并提交联合国禁止酷刑委员会审议。
  – China shall complete the seventh report on implementing the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and submit it to the United Nations Committee Against Torture for consideration.
  ——撰写《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》第十四次至第十七次合并履约报告,并提交联合国消除种族歧视委员会审议。
  – China shall complete the 14th-17th combined report on implementing the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and submit it to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination for consideration.
  ——撰写《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》第九次履约报告,并提交联合国消除对妇女歧视委员会审议。
  – China shall complete the ninth report on implementing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, and submit it to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women for consideration.
  ——撰写《儿童权利公约》第五次履约报告,包括《〈儿童权利公约〉关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题的任择议定书》《〈儿童权利公约〉关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书》相关内容,并提交联合国儿童权利委员会审议。
  – China shall complete the fifth report on implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, and submit it to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child for consideration.
  ——撰写《残疾人权利公约》第二次履约报告,并提交联合国残疾人权利委员会审议。
  – China shall complete the second report on implementing the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and submit it to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for consideration.
  ——继续推进相关法律准备工作, 为批准《公民及政治权利国际公约》创造条件。
  – China shall continue to advance related legal preparations and pave the way for ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
  ——全面参与联合国人权机制工作,推动联合国人权理事会等机制同等重视经济、社会、文化权利和公民、政治权利,以公正、客观和非选择性方式开展工作。
  – China shall fully participate in the work of the UN’s human rights mechanisms, and promote the United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC) and other mechanisms to attach equal importance to economic, social and cultural rights as well as civil and political rights, and function in a fair, objective and non-selective manner.
  ——认真落实中国在人权理事会第一轮、第二轮国别人权审查中接受的建议,积极参与第三轮国别人权审查。
  – China shall implement the related proposals offered during the HRC’s first- and second-round Universal Periodic Review for China, and is actively participating in the third round.
  ——与人权理事会特别机制开展合作。认真答复特别机制来函。根据接待能力,邀请有关特别机制访华。继续推荐中国专家竞聘特别机制。
  – China shall cooperate with the Special Procedures of the HRC, answer letters from it, and invite representatives of that body to visit China, as appropriate. China will continue to recommend Chinese experts for the posts in the Special Procedures.
  ——与联合国人权高级专员办公室开展交流与合作。
  – China shall conduct exchanges and cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  ——在平等和相互尊重基础上与有关国家开展人权对话。加强与金砖国家、发展中国家、发展中国家集团人权磋商与合作,向有需要的发展中国家提供人权技术援助。
  – China shall hold dialogues on human rights with relevant countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect. It shall also increase consultation and cooperation on human rights with the other four BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa), developing countries and the G77 (group of developing nations), and provide technical assistance in human rights field demanded by other developing countries.
  ——参与亚欧非正式人权研讨会等区域、次区域人权交流活动。主办2016年亚欧非正式人权研讨会。办好北京人权论坛、中欧人权研讨会、中德人权研讨会、中美司法与人权研讨会。
  – China shall participate in the Informal Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Seminar on Human Rights and other regional and sub-regional activities on human rights. In 2016 China will host the 16th Informal ASEM Seminar on Human Rights. It shall make due contribution to the holding of Beijing Forum on Human Rights, Sino-European Forum on Human Rights, Sino-German Human Rights Dialogue and Sino-American Dialogue on Rule of Law and Human Rights.
  ——推动中国海外企业在对外经贸合作、援助、投资中遵守驻在国法律,履行社会责任。
  – China shall urge its overseas enterprises to abide by the laws of the countries in which they are stationed, and fulfill their social responsibilities in the process of conducting foreign economic and trade cooperation, providing assistance and making investment.
  ——支持和推动民间组织参与国际人权交流与合作,为推动国际人权事业健康发展作出民间贡献。
  – China shall support and promote the participation of non-governmental organizations in international exchanges and cooperation in the field of human rights to make their contributions to the healthy development of human rights around the world.
  六、实施和监督
  VI. Implementation and Supervision
  完善国家人权行动计划联席会议机制, 加强对《行动计划》实施的监督和评估工作,全方位、多层次保障《行动计划》的落实。
  China shall improve the joint meeting mechanism for the National Human Rights Action Plan, and improve supervision and assessment of the implementation of the Action Plan, so as to ensure its implementation in various fields and at different levels.
  ——各级地方政府、中央和国家机关各有关部门应结合各地区特点和各部门工作职责,制定《行动计划》实施方案,确保《行动计划》各项目标任务顺利完成。
  – The local governments at all levels and related departments of the state organs shall work out detailed measures for the implementation of the Action Plan in accordance with their respective functions and regional characteristics, so as to ensure the successful fulfillment of all its objectives and tasks.
  ——国家人权行动计划联席会议机制开展阶段性调研、检查和评估,引入第三方评估机制,及时公布评估报告。
  – The joint meeting mechanism for the National Human Rights Action Plan shall conduct phased research, inspection and assessment, introduce a third-party assessment mechanism, and release the assessment report in a timely fashion.
  ——尊重人民主体地位,创新社会治理机制,发挥社会组织在实施《行动计划》过程中的建设性作用。
  – We shall respect the people’ s dominant role, make innovations in social governance mechanisms, and give full play to the constructive role of social organizations in implementing the Action Plan.
  ——将《行动计划》作为人权培训的重要内容,使各级党政干部充分认识实施《行动计划》的重要性。
  – We shall take the Action Plan as a major component of our human rights training, so that Party and government cadres at all levels fully comprehend the importance of implementing the Action Plan.
  ——鼓励新闻媒体广泛宣传《行动计划》的内容,并在《行动计划》的实施中发挥监督作用。
  – We shall encourage the news media to cover the contents of the Action Plan in an extensive way, and act as supervisors for its implementation.